Concurrent sessions

Find the sessions of your interest in the schedule below

 

During the conference there are almost 350 sessions that you can choose from, spread over 8 concurrent sessions of 90 minutes and 2 interactive poster sessions of 45 minutes:

– Paper presentations: 3 grouped 30-minutes presentations each, including discussion

– Roundtables: 3 grouped 30-minutes discussions, about a shortly presented idea/strategy/research

– Ted Talks: 3 grouped short presentations of 15 minutes from expert speakers, followed by discussion

– Symposia: a maximum of three or four coherent presentations followed by discussion

– Workshops: interactive (skill-building) sessions of 90 minutes

– Posters: grouped poster pitches of 2 minutes each followed by discussion

 

When multiple presentations are scheduled in one session (paper presentations, Ted Talks, poster presentations and roundtables), it is not allowed to change rooms during the session.

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Tuesday 3 Sep 2019

13:00 - 14:30 Concurrent session 1

School-wide implementation of Lesson Study: an international perspective

Featured symposium413Irene Stone, St Marks Community School, Ireland; Elaine Wilson, University of Cambrigde, United Kingdom; Tauilya Akimova, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools, Kazakhsthan

Amsterdam '72Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Lesson Study shows great potential to support both teacher and student learning in countries outside of Japan. However, many new contexts struggle to implement and sustain Lesson Study. To move beyond the oftentimes short-lived and simplified initiatives, schools need to carefully craft both their understanding and implementation of the Lesson Study cycle and of the organizational structures needed to set up Lesson Study in schools. In this symposium we will explore this crafting process from four different international contexts (Ireland, Kazachstan, the Netherlands, Singapore) to investigate how we can sustainably craft Lesson Study in each educational system.

     

General summary

As the global spread of Lesson Study continues, more and more countries around the world are able to experience the potential Lesson Study offers to strengthen and support education. However, while in Japan Lesson Study is sustainably embedded into the educational system, in new contexts Lesson Study initiatives are often short-lived and simplified versions of the practice. As such, implementing and sustaining new Lesson Study initiatives requires a crafting process. Educators need to construct with care both the understanding and implementation of the Lesson Study cycle and the organizational structures that support Lesson Study.

In Japan, Lesson Study has been practiced for over a century and Lesson Study is both well-understood and well-supported in schools (Akiba, 2016; Lewis, 2015). Lesson Study is seen as a way to enhance curriculum knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and content knowledge (Yoshida, 2012). During Lesson Study, teachers go through a plan-do-study-act cycle to investigate their research theme. Japanese scholars stress that studying curriculum materials and inviting knowledgeable others are important elements of the cycle (Fujii, 2014; Takahashi & McDougal, 2016). In addition, Japan has an extensive infrastructure supporting the improvement of teaching through Lesson Study on a national, district, and local level (Hiebert & Stigler, 2017). For example, at the school level, Lesson Study is sustained through various organizational structures, such as being well-planned into teachers work schedules (Akiba, 2016).

In countries outside of Japan, Lesson Study is a new practice. Research shows that Lesson Study can be interpreted differently and used for other purposes than in Japan. The research cycle can also differ from the Japanese cycle. For example, some versions add a specific focus on case pupils or remove the presence of knowledgeable others (Dudley, 2011; Seleznyov, 2018). Moreover, countries new to Lesson Study vary in the extent to which they already have the required infrastructure to support collaborative learning in schools and in whether they set this up once they adopt Lesson Study.

To understand how international Lesson Study can move beyond the simplified and shortened versions of the practice, we will be four countries (Ireland, Kazachstan, the Netherlands, Singapore) presenting from our own perspective on how Lesson Study is understood, implemented, and organized. Schools from each context will answer the following questions:

  • How has Lesson Study been adopted and with what purpose?
  • (How) Does the research cycle used deviate from Japanese Lesson Study and why?
  • How is Lesson Study organized into our educational setting?
  • What are challenges and successes of working with and organizing Lesson Study in schools?

 

In the symposium the different approaches will be presented and critically compared and discussed with the public.

 

Structure of the session:

  • Chair  – 3 min.
  • Presenter 1 from Ireland – 15 min.
  • Presenter 2 from Kazachstan – 15 min.
  • Presenter 3 from the Netherlands – 15 min.
  • Presenter 4 from Singapore – 15 min.
  • Discussant – 15 min
  • Q&A – 12 min

Lesson Study in Ireland

The Lesson-Study programme I am involved with focuses on developing teachers’ craft in teaching mathematics through structured problem solving. It is closely aligned with the Japanese model. I have been involved in three Lesson-Study cycles as a post-primary mathematics teacher and as a facilitator – in a national Lesson-Study programme run by the Professional Development Service for Teachers in Ireland. A Lesson-Study cycle comprises 5 x 2.5 hour meetings (which happen in teachers’ own professional time) followed by teaching and observation of the research lesson and finally by a post-lesson discussion meeting (which happens in school time).

Through collaborating with colleagues during the Lesson-Study cycle, we have become reflective in our practice and strengthened our professional relationships. Trust has developed among us to the point where we feel able to constructively critique the lesson in the post lesson reflection. The process has allowed us to have ownership of our own professional development as we are focusing on areas that are relevant to our own context. Our subject knowledge has improved through our shared study of primary and post-primary curricula. We believe that Lesson Study has a role in supporting teachers to be lifelong learners and can help implement education policy in other areas.

 

Lesson Study in Kazachstan

Kazakhstan has been engaged in a whole county programme of education development since 2011. This has included extending teaching and learning approaches. To facilitate this the Government set up the Centre of Excellence (CoE).  Their focus has been to increase pedagogical knowledge and opportunities for teacher collaboration leading to collective inquiry. Lesson Study forms a key driver in this process.

Kazakh teachers have a long history of ‘open lessons’ where teachers invite colleagues to view their lesson. Lesson Study has extended this by using Pete Dudley’s model of teachers working together to plan a lesson with one or two pupils’ learning in mind, and a review which focusses on learning rather than behaviour.

Lesson study is now used widely in schools in Kazakhstan as part of ongoing school improvement.  Teacher groups carry out collective inquiry and this promotes critical reflective practice.  Many teachers have published papers about their Lesson Studies and contributed to WALS conferences.

Lesson Study has shifted teachers’ focus onto pupils’ learning and has increased knowledge sharing and improved pedagogical content knowledge. The main constraints have been in allocating time for planning and review. When done in haste there is a tendency for teachers to lack criticality.

 

Lesson Study at the Vossius Gymnasium in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

The Vossius Gymnasium is a secondary school with one type of education: gymnasium. Regarding academic achievement, student satisfaction and reported wellbeing, results are above average compared to schools with a similar student population.

We were introduced to the method of Lesson Study while participating in a program of the Dutch Ministry of Education. Despite the positive school reports, school staff felt the need to differentiate the instruction to the student’s needs and became aware that our students weren’t all alike. There was a variety, or better, diversity in their learning needs, skills and motivation per subject.

Starting off with a pilot in 2015 of volunteering teachers expressing their desire to develop their didactic and pedagogical skills, more and more teachers of our school became interested and enthusiastic. Motivation for teachers to participate was in particular the collaboration between colleagues, the shared feedback and support that developed between colleagues .

We can certainly conclude that LS has been a successful, sustainable development in our school, amplifying the sense of togetherness in an environment where autonomy and competence already existed. The current year we participate with the VU university in a LS program regarding group dynamical situations.  LS enhancing an ongoing movement.

 

The case of a primary school in Singapore

Lesson Study has gained significant momentum worldwide in the past decade. As a professional learning approach based on collaboration and deliberate practice, Lesson Study supports teachers to develop expertise in knowledge, beliefs, and practices as well as facilitating focused conversations and reflections in the professional community. Lesson Study is a cultural activity and is embedded in Japanese schools for over a hundred years. How schools outside of Japan strategically adopt and adapt Lesson Study to their cultural contexts remain elusive. This presentation attempts to unpack the complexity of Lesson Study implementation in one elementary school in Singapore. Lesson Study was selected as part of its Professional Development framework to bring about quality teaching. It affords the platform for the school to make a major shift towards ‘Collaborative Inquiry’ as school-wide pedagogy for student engagement. Moving teachers from compliance to commitment, to “knowing”, “doing” and “being” in this process requires painstaking efforts and collaboration beyond the school. This process is iterative as we learn from challenges, mistakes and ideas such as Fullan’s “triangle of success” (2008) – school leadership, system-ness and deep pedagogy to inform our work as we move towards a sustainable model of Lesson Study implementation in the school.

Identification of learning style through lesson analysis for preparing science learning

Paper116Anna Permanasari, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, SCIENCE EDUCATION, Indonesia

Belgrado '73Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The aim of the research was to describe the learning style of secondary student from one of International schools in West Java Indonesia. The descriptive method was used to elaborate the learning style of 14 students. The instruments used were the lesson observation form and the VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinaesthetic) Questionnaire for Young Learner Version 7.1 (http://www.vark-learn.com) which was developed based on Fleming’s (1987) VARK model of learning style. The research shows that students performed various learning style (oral, visual, kinaesthetic, read/write, and mix) with the various type of learning preference (mono-modal, bi-modals, and tri-modals). The result of research was strengthened by the lesson observation to all of the students. This learning study is very useful as a basis for determining the strategies that will be used in further learning

Summary

Preparing the strategy for teaching and learning process will become easier if the teacher has a quite understand to the students’ learning style. Teachers have to make sure that the instructional strategy accommodates varied students’ need in terms of how they learn best. It is because students who are taught in ways that fits preferred learning styles can be expected to enjoy learning and have better academic achievement (Shaughnessy, 1998). Similarly, Bobby De Porter (2014) contended that a person will learn and communicate easier using his or her learning style preference. Fleming (2006) also emphasizes that knowledge of, and acting on, one’s modal preference is an important condition for improving one’s learning.

The research was done to elaborate the learning styles of young learners. The descriptive research was done on using two modes, lesson analysis and VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/write, Kinaesthetic) Questionnaire for Young Learner Version 7.1 (http://www.vark-learn.com) which was developed based on Fleming’s (1987) VARK model of learning style. The questionnaire comprises of 16 questions, each followed by four options of answers. As many as 14 junior high school students from one of international schools in West Java Indonesia were involved in this research. They were all attending learning science on using engineering design project with STEM approach. The data obtained from the class observation and students responses those were then tabulated to determine type of learning style that they performed. compared one to the other to determine whether they have multimodal or single modal learning style.

The research shows that students performed various learning styles (oral, visual, kinaesthetic, read/write, and mix) with the various type of learning preference (mono-modal, bi-modals, and tri-modals). It was found that 8 out of 14 (57%) students have single-modal learning style. Among them there was one student with visual (V) learning style, three students with aural (A) learning style, two students with read/write (R) learning style and two students with kinaesthetic (K) learning style. On the other hand, there were four (29%) students who have bi-modal learning style. Among these students, it was also found that three students have both visual and aural (VA) learning style and one student has both aural and kinaesthetic (AK) learning style. In addition, there were 2 (14%) students who have tri-modal learning style. There was one student with aural, read/write and kinaesthetic (ARK) learning style and another student with visual, aural and read/write (VAR) learning style. However, there were no students who have quad-modal learning style. From this finding, it can be concluded that the students have varied learning style which include single-modal, bi-modal and tri-modal learning style. The result come from lesson observation was strengthened the result gained from questioner. The findings and issues raised by the current study indicated several considerations for teacher in designing a lesson with engineering design project. Teacher should ensure that the instructions given during the lesson can be understood by all students with varied learning style. This could be done by providing multiple instructions including oral and written instructions.

Learning Studies
Learning strategy, Learning style, Lesson analysis

Development of integrative representations of “force” and its implications for scientific literacy

Paper223Xinnan Kuai, Capital Normal University, China

Belgrado '73Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Using scientific concepts to explain natural phenomena is an important aspect of scientific literacy. As for the subject matter of “force and motion”, the process of cultivating scientific literacy involves starting from students’ bodily perceptions and everyday usage of related words and phrases to the scientific conception and symbolic representation all through. From a theoretical perspective of learning as shifting between and within different representations and knowing as a familiarity in and with a conceptual environment, this study use the method of cognitive interview to explore the development of students’ representations on “force”, and their ability of shifting between representations during the period of compulsory education (1-9 grades). Preliminary results from grade 8 students have shown separation of different representations and students fail to move between symbolic and phenomenological representations in new situations. The findings will enlighten teachers’ pedagogical design, which foster students’ scientific literacy.

Summary

Introduction

In PISA 2015 SCIENCE FRAMEWORK, one of the key competencies in scientific literacy is explaining phenomena scientifically. It requires students’ reification of scientific concepts into everyday phenomenon, which means their perception of same phenomenon is mediated by scientific knowledge. How did this ability develop in different stages of children's cognition and what kind of teaching interventions can improve it are important aspects in scientific teaching which leads to scientific literacy.

Theoretical framework

Researchers have theorized learning and understanding as they arise from shifting between and within different representations of a natural phenomenon, and knowing as a familiarity in and with a conceptual environment. (Greeno, 1988; Roth, 1995) In relation to explaining phenomena scientifically, students’ ability to connect and move freely between different levels of representation, which are referred to as phenomenological, conceptual, descriptive and symbolic, is the key. As for the subject matter of “Force and Motion”, which is so deeply rooted in everyday life and bodily perception since we’re born, and also has such a long tradition of scientific inquiry since ancient Greek and with rich scientific discoveries and conceptual and mathematical constructions, it seems to be a perfect teaching subject to put this theory into practice.

Research questions

This study aims to empirically explore students’ representational models of “Force and Motion” in different stages in order to foster scientific literacy of explaining phenomena scientifically. So main research questions is what levels of representations do students of different grades have and can integrate with regard to “Force and Motion”? And we also want to ask the extension question of what’re the implications for pedagogical intervention?

Method

This study use qualitative methods to explore students’ representations and understandings of natural phenomena. We use an interview questionnaire on 27 students covering grades 1-9 in a school in Beijing. For each grades, we’ll purposefully choose 3 students with different cognitive levels in science, especially in physics.

Around “force”, questions are corresponding to four levels of representation: phenomenon, concept, description and symbol. Through it, we can tell whether students have mastered this level of representation. Meanwhile, there are questions can reflect transformations between representations, designed to analyze students' ability to integrate representations.

Results

Results of the study are to be developed. They will be divided into two parts. For students at different stages, first part is the level of representations they have mastered; second part is the development of their ability to integrate representations. In our preliminary experiment at grade eight, we found students with good grades have mastered symbolic representations, but they cannot relate that to descriptive and phenomenological representations in new situations. Students with average scores need understand the concept representation of "force" with situations in textbooks.

Conclusion and discussion

Through results, we can get an overview of the ability to integrate representations in different grades, which can provide an important reference for science teaching. Teachers can assess what developmental stages students are at concerning their ability to integrate different levels of representations, and thus enlighten their pedagogical design.

Learning Studies
Cognitive interview, Representation, Scientific literacy

The efficacy of creative drama in science activities in developing the creativity of children

Paper62Liu Ying, , China

Belgrado '73Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Abstract: The present study focuses on "creative drama in preschool science activities course in China" in order to enhance Chinese children's creativity. The study used experimental design to examine the effect of the course. 180 children of 3-6 years old in the third Kindergarten of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing were randomly assigned to the experimental group (30 people) and control group (30 people). The children in the experimental group joined the designed course which lasted for a semester of about 16 weeks, while the children in the control group joined the formal scientific course. The quantitative and qualitative data were presented to prove the effectiveness of the Children's Drama Education applied to scientific activity courses and to explain the difficulties and solutions in the implementing of the science curriculum and in the integration of educational drama into the preschool science teaching. The discussion and implication are also presented.

Summary

Albert Einstein said "creativity is more important than knowledge". Since the potential of creativity exists among all people, it can be identified and fostered by training (Gute, 2008). Creative thinking should be directed by children's past knowledge (Weisberg, 2006). But the core of science is consisted of abstract concepts, a fact that makes science a hard-to-teach subject, especially for young students (Carin, 1997; Gega & Peters, 1998). According to Brook's "empty space" model, creative drama can help to solve the cognitive dissonance in science activities(Brook,1968). This study aims to discuss the integration of educational drama into the preschool science teaching. The main purpose is to design "Creative Drama in Preschool Science Activities Course" in order to enhance children's creativity in preschool. The study used experimental design to examine the effect of the course. 180 children of 3-6 years old in the third Kindergarten of Chinese Academy of Sciences were randomly assigned to the experimental (30 people) and control (30 people) group. The experimental group joined the designed course, which lasted for a semester about 16 weeks, while the control group joined the formal scientific course. The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT)-Figural Form, which is one of the most widely used tests for measuring creativity nowadays, was used to measure the creativity level of these two groups, before and after the intervention. The findings of multiple regression showed that, children of the experimental group got higher scores in fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration than the children of the control group. The qualitative data were also presented to prove the effectiveness of the Children's Drama Education applied to science activity courses and explain the difficulties and solutions in teachings of the science curriculum and the integration of educational drama into the preschool science teaching. The discussion and implication are also presented. The findings are as follows: (1) The science curriculum design should focus on children's interest and children need to sense the real environment thoroughly and to solve the real scientific problems before they perform. (2) The science drama activities should be designed differently according to children's age. For children aged 3-4, their activities need to be more dramatic. 4-6 years old children take part in more realistic activities and in drama, therefore the experience for them needs to be more real. (3) The presentation of drama could be flexible and any performance of children is valued. (4) Science drama curriculum should be combined with some elements like music, pictures, videos and some props, which can attract children's attention and encourage children's performance. (5) Children who neither want to perform nor to speak could be encouraged to use the pictures or drawings to record their ideas. (6) For children, educational drama props are more suitable than pictures alone, but teachers should discuss with children about how to use the props before class. (7) To motivate children's reflection, teachers could implement the Theater into Education (T-I-E) method, to perform the drama for the children audiences to watch, and to interact with children.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Creative drama, Creativity, Science Activities

Metacognitive skills development strategy or how to teach students to become an independent learner?

Roundtable150Karlygash Jarbulova, Jamilya Abilzhanova, Nazarbayev Intellectual School Astana, Kazakhstan

BoardroomTue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

This work will presents the results and experience of mathematics teachers of Nazarbayev Intellectual School of Astana in the framework of Lesson Study. The goal of the research is to determine effective methods and strategies on development of metacognitive skills of students. Firstly, study consider the relationship between metacognitive skills and lifelong learning skills. It connects the maturity level of metacognitive skills to the quality of knowledge and formation of independent learning ability. Secondly, the work provides arguments on positive effect of reflective practices during the lesson on advancement of metacognitive skills. Finally, it presents some methods and teaching strategies used during the Lesson Study which are aimed for effective formation of independent, lifelong learner skills in students.

Summary

Today's time requirements are such that education, both in school and universities, should be focused on developing students' independent learning skills. It allows students to investigate and explore new areas without outside help. The ability to study independently is a guarantee of their professional success in the future.

Conscious learning is based on metacognitive skills that allow students to:

1) identify problems that need to be solved;

2) be aware of own strengths and weaknesses;

3) develop learning and problem-solving strategies;

4) adequately evaluate the efficiency of solution and learning strategies;

5) fairly assess the level of own knowledge and skills

The purpose of Lesson study which lasted for 1.5 years was to determine the most effective strategies for the development of students’ metacognitive skills. A group of 6 mathematics teachers worked with 14-16 years old students of grade 9-10. This age group was chosen due to the low level of independent learner’s performance. List of involved teachers included: two teachers with more than 13 years of work experience, two teachers with 2-3 years and two - without work experience.

One of the main factors influencing the success of learning is the awareness of students own knowledge. Sense of knowledge can be illusory, and it is likely to exaggerate in adolescents. Therefore, it is necessary to teach children how to assess existing knowledge and skills correctly, warn them against metacognitive distortion and teach various learning strategies.

As a result of discussion with colleagues, a chosen tool for assessing one’s own knowledge was Tobias and Everson’s Knowledge Monitoring Ability (KMA) method.

This method allows us to identify the extent to which a preliminary assessment of one’s own knowledge corresponds to his/her real knowledge. Analysis of the results allows students to develop a strategy for further development. During the lessons, teachers purposefully and systematically taught children not only methods of problem solving, but also different approaches, which were also subject to analysis and evaluation.

Consequently, the following positive results were identified in the dynamics of the lesson:

- responsibility for their own student learning has increased, students used class working time more efficiently, regularly completed the homework;

- the choice of further education in the Diploma Program in Mathematics among observed students was justified by the awareness of their own strengths and weaknesses;

- verification skills have been improved (several ways of solutions and justification provided);

- more independence in the learning of new topics demonstrated;

- feedback from students during reflection became more complete;

- classroom interaction became more productive.

Conclusion of the Lesson study:

1) teamwork with teachers in the framework of Lesson Study, allowed young professionals to increase their competency through sharing and reflecting on the experience gained and advance their teaching and observation skills,

2) the development of reflective skills of students and teachers;

3) mastering teaching skills among teachers;

4) enrichment of the “methodical bank” with the strategies and techniques of reflection and formative assessment.

5) raising students’ self-awareness and motivation in studying.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Metacognition, Metacognitive strategies

The revenge of the letterpillar: learning vocabulary skills through game-based learning

Roundtable69Lee Lian Tay, Norman Selvaraju, Singapore

BoardroomTue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The Revenge of the LetterPillar is an online game that aims to build vocabulary skills through storytelling and game-based learning. Based on earlier lesson studies conducted in our school, it was observed that many young students found it difficult to retain vocabulary and use it effectively in their work or lives, especially lower progress students. Many students also found vocabulary activities mundane and were not motivated to widen their vocabulary.

To address these issues, the school designed and built an online game The Revenge of the LetterPillar to integrate a yearlong story of revenge and chaos within the world of AlphaVerse with a multi-sensory approach to learning vocabulary.

The implementation of the game in class merged both online and offline strategies based on a D.I.E.T (Direct Instruction, Individual work, Exploratory learning, Teamwork) and P.A.S.S. (Picture, Action, Symbol, Song) frameworks to improve students’ vocabulary and motivation towards learning new words.

Summary

The practice or context from which the work originates

This lesson study was conducted in an elementary school in Singapore. The game was implemented with a class of 11-year-old boys.

Relevance for educational practice

Vocabulary forms the foundation of reading and comprehension. However, many students, especially those who do not read widely, are not exposed to good vocabulary and strategies for learning it (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2013). There is a need to help students learn these strategies in an engaging manner.

Theoretical framework

To support the use of the online game, the school designed a framework called D.I.E.T (Direct Instruction, Individual work, Exploratory learning, Teamwork). Students first learn about the word via visual, auditory and tactile activities. They are then engaged in different word games and puzzles. This playful exploratory learning encourages students to learn how the words are associated with each other.

To integrate the online game with offline classroom strategies, the school designed a LetterPillar Journal which incorporated a Picture, Action, Symbol, Song (P.A.S.S.) framework to allow students to form more associations for the words they have learnt.

Research question

How can the use of online games with the DIET and PASS framework improve students vocabulary and increase their motivation to learn new words?

Method(s)

3-week-long intervention where the online game was used by students during their free time at home, in class by teacher for two hour-long lessons for direct instruction, and students using the LetterPillar journals.

Quatitative:

Pre-tests based on 3 spelling quizzes

Post-tests based on 3 spelling quizzes

Qualitative:

Interviews with students to learn more about the difference in their motivation towards learning vocabulary

Results

Students who were generally weaker in their vocabulary improved significantly. Average scores for 44% of the students, prior to the intervention, was 69% but this rose to 87% after the intervention.

About 40% of students saw lower scores after the intervention. However, these students’ scores were at an average of 87% prior to the intervention, which is already a very high score.

16% of the students saw no changes to their scores. Their scores were also very high with 90% accuracy.

Based on qualitative interviews with students, the use of the online game motivated them significantly to want to learn new words. For example, one student commented that:

“I feel that the LetterPillar game has helped me a lot in my spelling…from last time, I kept failing in my spelling but now I feel that I’ve improved a lot…I learnt like the PASS strategy, looking at the words and writing them down…I used the Picture strategy the most.”

Based on students’ artefacts, the LetterPillar Journal allowed students to come up with creative pictures and symbols to form word associations.

Conclusion and discussion

The initial findings of the use of the game The Revenge of the LetterPillarand the DIET and PASS frameworks are positive. While a more in-depth study across different classes and schools might render more reliable and valid data, the current findings based on a 3-week intervention is promising.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Games, Pedagogies, Story

Reconsidering teacher behaviors: the eye of classroom management in elementary school teachers

Roundtable72Tomoya Kaihatsu, Graduate School of Waseda University, Japan

BoardroomTue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

  This study explores how elementary teachers manage the classroom by focusing on teacher behavior and its function. Six teachers’ discourse during Japanese lesson and managemental functions included in their discourse were analyzed according to inductively generated codes. The number of teacher behavior we analyzed is 107. All of them is classified into three categories. Those of managemental functions are also classified into three categories. The correspondence table shows that “academic instruction” leads to not only “effective group lesson” such as maintaining order but “relationship and an atmosphere” such as making the classroom warm and safe space.

  The study implies that the way to teach subjects and to manage the classroom are not independent at all. Rather, the latter is deeply integrated into the former. Thus, we should consider teacher crafting as the unite of teaching subjects and classroom management with an eye of behavior-function combination.

Summary

  Classroom management, defined as teachers’ action to create and maintain the environment which foster students’ academic or social-emotional learning (Evertson & Weinstein, 2006), is one of the most prominent aspects for determining instructional quality (Kunter et al., 2007). While classroom management is essential elements for educational practice and teacher expertise, few studies mentioned the complex and dynamics relationship between academic instruction and classroom management. From one of the several studies which discussed such relationships, Asada and Sako (1991), which is the theoretical background for the present study, insisted on dual functions of teacher behavior, that is, teachers are intended to realize two goals at the same time by one particular action. The purpose of this study is to re-understand teacher behavior and its function from the perspective of classroom management. Research question based on the purpose is how teacher behavior and managemental function are related to each other.

  Six Japanese elementary school teachers participated in this research. Mean years of teaching experience is 8.33 (SD = 4.38). Each participant performed a Japanese lesson in June, which was videotaped. After lessons, transcripts of teachers’ talk were generated. Referring to transcripts, participants were asked to pick out teacher behavior intended to manage classroom and to figure out what managemental functions they expected. Two kinds of data which represent teacher behavior and managemental function were respectively coded through an inductive process. Emerged codes were categorized into more abstracted theme for the sake of easily interpreting.

  The number of teachers’ behavior and its function we analyzed is up to 107. Inductively coding 107 of teacher behaviors, three categories which were named as “academic instruction”, “managemental instruction”, and “non-academic instruction” emerged at last. As for managemental function, three categories which were named as “effective group lesson”, “relationships and an atmosphere”, and “human growth” were found. Investigating the relationship between teacher behavior and managemental function, the correspondence table was made, in which the vertical axis represents teacher behavior and the horizonal one does managemental function. The table shows “managemental instruction” includes all of three functions, of course. However, “academic instruction” also includes all of three functions. While the fact that teacher behavior has dual functions, which are teaching subjects and maintaining order, is confirmed, some teacher behavior have ternary functions. In conclusion, teacher behavior sometimes has multi functions, which implies that teachers have simultaneously taught subjects and managed classroom.

  Generally, how to teach subjects and how to manage classroom seem to be independent and the focus in Leeson Study is basically the latter. This research, however, found both are overlapping each other. The finding implies that teacher crafting of classroom management is perhaps interpreted as the well-integrated unite of teaching subjects and managing classroom. Therefore, during studying lessons, reconsidering teacher behavior which has potential to include multi functions is needed for authentic teacher development.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Classroom management, Dual functions, Teacher behevior

Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study in China: Crafting Sustainable Pedagogies in Teacher Preparation

Symposium357Jianjian Wu, Jianyuan Zhang, Xingzi Xu, Ling Wang, Beijing Normal University, China

Buenos Aires '72Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The innovative and localised application of lesson study in pre-service teacher education, "Teachng-Demo Based Lesson Study", is practiced for two years by Beijing Normal University. The new model undergoes two rounds of improvement and revision, indicating the Teaching Demo Based Lesson Study should adhere to the following principles. First, deeply research on the teaching procedures and the theme of teaching resources. Second, ensure the consistency of teaching researchers and their evaluation for the pre-service teachers' teaching demos. Third, strengthen the reflecion and research of pre-service teachers in the lesson study. Following this pattern, pre-service teachers tranfer and construct their teaching perspecitves, improve their teaching competency, master the effective teaching language and teaching skills within the learning communities respectively.

Summary

Incorporating lesson study in ITE confronts several challenges, and is still in need of much exploration (O'Leary, 2014). Beijing Normal University proposed a localized LS model in teacher preparation: Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study. This model is aimed to let student teachers sufficiently, and systematically experience the procedures to craft a lesson. After designing lesson plan alone or collectively, they will give this lesson in a simulated environment where university researchers, teaching researchers, school teachers, and peer student teachers act as audience. After this research lesson, multi-audience will give comments based on their observation. We embrace that expertise and perspectives from different stakeholders will nourish student teachers' all-around professional growth. Integrated into university-based teacher education curriculum, this variant model of LS is to resolve the challenges in incoherence between academic curriculum and practical experience (Feiman-Nemser, 2001), with focus on “core practice” (Ball & Forzani, 2009; Huang, Barlow, & Haupt, 2017).

Compared with international colleagues with much attention on LS in practicum, Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study is located in university context, and much more time-, money- and energy-saving for university researchers. It is much easier for student teachers to obtain theoretical feedbacks from these researchers while in the practicum field, some cooperative teachers can only provide space for student teachers' practice rather than truly enter a mentor-mentee relationship to facilitate student teacher learning (Korth, Erickson, & Hall, 2009). However, it is inevitable to meet challenges in this model, e.g. the absence of true learners in the classroom may cause insufficient reflective mentoring for student teachers (Biesta, 2004); without long-term touch with student teachers, to what degree advisors (especially teaching researchers from institutes outside university) to meet student teachers’ needs (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson, 2009). At all events, this university curriculum-binding model of lesson study is a new attempt to form a temporal “third space” where stakeholders interact and mutually respect (Zeichner, Payne, & Brayko, 2015), aimed to bridge the theoretical-practical gap in initial teacher education.

This symposium will report an ongoing study on Beijing Normal University’s Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study, during the postgraduate teacher education programs in the subjects of Chinese and English. From October 2018, there have been several rounds of teaching-demos and later this year, there will be field teaching in secondary schools. Authors in this symposium will analyse benefits and deficiencies of this model in an evidence-based way. There will be three papers in this symposium: the first paper, Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study through the lens of operating system design, illustrates the innovation process of lesson study and its operating system. The second and third papers present the pre-service teachers’ change and growth in the lesson study in the form of teacher narrative methodology.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study through the Lens of Operating System Design

WU Jianjian, WANG Ling

In essence, this model is an integration of apprenticeship and rationalism, thus forming a laboratory model. Based on this pattern, Beijing Normal University developed this project. However, the development of a project is not only the design of the concept, but also the design of operating system. The model was first implemented in 2017 but exposed a lot of problems during the process. Accordingly, certain adjustments have been adopted when it was applied in 2018 from the three aspects. First, compared with the poor planning in the first time, rationalising the order and proportion of micro lessons and lesson rationale makes the project more scientific. Second, on contrary to the different text in different teaching demos, teaching the same lesson during the whole process of lesson study guarantee pre-service teachers to reflect on and improve the same lesson. Third, compared with the different experts in different demos in the first time, the consistency of experts in the whole process ensures the continuity of the evaluation for pre-service teachers’ teaching demos. Evidence-based improvement of the project deepens our understanding of the new model.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

Growth, Conversion and Question: The Impact of Teaching-demo Based Lesson Studyon Chinese Pre-service Teacher

XU Xingzi, ZHOU Shenji

Teacher narrative , a method with teachers as narrative subjects and research subjects, is an effective way for pre-service students to conduct Lesson Study. The purpose of the study is to analyze how teachers improve teaching skills through "de-staging" (identity transformation, knowledge transformation, etc.)"teaching demonstration" by analyzing the narrative texts of six teaching demonstrations, and the problems arising in the process. This model promotes the transformation of pre-service teachers teaching perspective from teacher-centered to student-centered, and learn to instruct students subject content knowledge with effective teaching language. The study found two problems: 1) in the absence of real students, the authenticity of the "validity" of teaching language is unverifiable. 2) every application of the function of consciousness, is always accompanied by a subjective reflection, which is unacceptable, unfair and inaccurate (Jung, 1935). Experts and researchers inevitably evaluate the performance of teachers with "subjective factor", which might brings great subjectivity and randomness to this lesson study. In the follow-up study, we will apply the lesson plan formed in the study to classroom and judge the effectiveness of this project by comparing the students' reactions with the presupposed reactions of the researchers.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Constructing English Pre-service Teachers' Teaching Belief through Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study

ZHANG Jianyuan, ZHOU Shenji

The localized lesson study in BNU, “Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study” provides opportunities for pre-service teachers to plan, implement, reflect and revise a specific lesson. Learning community can create collaborative learning atmosphere for teachers’ professional development, provide invisible learning resources, and build a platform for teachers’ dialogue to promote their reflection and action research (Wang & Li, 2013). Two kinds of learning communities were organized in this lesson study to facilitate the pre-service teachers’ development of pedagogical content knowledge, including professors-researchers-initial teachers community and initial teacher communities. Against the backdrop of advocacy of “the whole person development” in National English Curriculum Standard(2017), this study aims at how pre-service teachers construct the perspectives of English language teaching to develop students’ core competencies through deeply exploring the theme of teaching resources,designing situated and contextualized activities pertaining to students learning experience with support from learning communities. The critical and practical suggestions from learning communities support pre-service teachers to accumulate education concept, develop teaching strategies and acquire the experience of organizing activities. In the following study, the lesson plan of this study will be implemented with the real secondary students to testify the efficiency of this study.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Pre-service teachers, Teacher Narrative methodology, Teaching-Demo Based Lesson Study

The ability to perform subtraction tasks with appropriate strategies

Paper122Anita Tittonen, Hallsta school, Norrtalje municipality, Sweden

Koninklijke logeTue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to discuss what may enable students to choose appropriate strategies when performing subtraction tasks. A learning study was conducted with students in grades 2 and 3 (students eight and nine years old). The students participated in pre- and post-tests, and video recorded lessons. The data were analyzed and the analysis shows that most of the students used the strategy take away, regardless the task, before the lessons in the study. According to the analysis after lessons in the study, students choose strategy, depending on the task. An implication may be that students already in grade 1 need to analyze subtraction tasks in order to choose an appropriate strategy, depending on the task.

Summary

Although, addition and subtraction are inverses, subtraction is described as a more complicated arithmetic (Ball, 1993; Brissiaud & Sander, 2010; Fuson, 1984, 1992). One reason may be that subtraction can be described as take away, combine and compare (Fuson, 1992).

This paper builds on the question What enable students to choose an appropriate strategy when performing subtraction tasks?

A learning study was conducted in a Swedish school with two teachers, two supervisors and students in grades 2 and 3, totalling 49.

What students need to discern, so-called critical aspects, in order to analyze subtraction tasks before performing them was iteratively explored. Critical aspects, a core concept in variation theory, can be described as what students need to learn. Variation theory is commonly used in learning study (Marton, 2015).

The students participated in pre- and post-tests, and video recorded lessons, which were analyzed with focus on what could be signs of critical aspects. Some students were interviewed in order to explore how they solve different subtraction tasks.

In the analysis, four critical aspects were identified:

the relationship between the numbers in a task in order to choose an appropriate strategy when performing the task,there are several strategies to perform a subtraction task,

the different strategies can be more or less appropriate, depending on the numbers in the task,

the difference (the “answer”) in a task is either the number of “steps”, moved from the subtrahend to the minuend or the number where you “finally land” when “take away” the subtrahend from the minuend.One example of the fourth critical aspects is when performing a task as 8 – 5 = x, using a number line. When moving steps from five to eight, there are three steps, which are the difference. When moving five steps from the minuend, the difference is not the number of steps, it is the number depicted on a number line after the steps (cf. Fuson, 1984).

According to the analysis, students regardless grade in this study, needed to discern the same critical aspects. An implication based on the findings, is that students already in grade 1 may need to discern the critical aspects above.

Assuming it is important analysing tasks before performing them, the findings may be relevant for teaching practice in grades 1-3, when planning and conducting lessons concerning subtraction. A limitation in this study may be that no negative numbers were included. When talking about the difference between two positive numbers, students may not discern that the difference included both magnitude and direction. This is specifically important when negative numbers are included (Kilhamn, 2011).

We argue it is important to choose appropriate numbers in tasks. Students may perform tasks as 65 – 62 = x as 5 – 2 = x instead and maybe “know” or “see” the difference. Thus, too simple values of the numbers may not enable students to discern the intended, the critical aspects. Therefore, we argue there is a need of choosing challenging values of numbers in tasks.

Learning Studies
Critical aspects, Learning study, Subtraction

A model of mathematics teaching for competency-based learning: a case study of a lesson in japan

Paper28Makoto Ota, Tokai Gakuen University, School of Education, Japan

Koninklijke logeTue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The aim of this study is to clarify the options for competency-based teaching and learning for the future of mathematics education in Japanese society.

Qualitative case study methods and quantitative methods were employed for data collection and case analysis.

The research verified the seven points associated with competency-based teaching and learning.

In conclusion, the following were found: (1) the children got a high sense of purpose for learning, and began thinking about their learning, and (2) their content learning was reinforced by competency-based teaching and learning.

Summary

The aim of this study is to clarify the options for competency-based teaching and learning for the future of mathematics education in Japanese society. Competency-based learning movements have taken place in many countries such as Finland and New Zealand. In Japan, a New Course of Study was introduced into the school that emphasized competency-based teaching of lessons in which schoolteachers had put their children to learn the contents of each subject. Without ignoring the contents of the subjects, the research planned for competency-based learning in mathematics education in which children can get competency.

Qualitative case study methods and quantitative methods were employed for data collection and case analysis.

The research verified the following seven points associated with competency-based teaching and learning:

Goal-setting of the lesson with the children,Reflection time-setting for the next learning session,Collection of self-exploration experiences of the children in independent learning time,Autonomy and active classroom with the child presiding,Promotion of the faculty of speech for explaining reasons and gettng evidence for the answer,Selection of relevant tasks related to the children’s real situation, andMathematics study on themes set by children themselves.In conclusion, the following were found: (1) the children got a high sense of purpose for learning, and began thinking about their learning, and (2) their content learning was reinforced by competency-based teaching and learning.

The Japanese proverb “slow and steady wins the race” shows that competency-based teaching and learning are better than quick content learning.

Learning Studies
Competency-based teaching, Goal-setting, Mathematics education

How to teach for students learning of place value

Paper39Henrik Hansson, Jonkoping University, Sweden

Koninklijke logeTue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The aim of this research is to contribute to the knowledge about how to teach for student´s conceptual understanding of place value. Together with six primary teachers data was gathered within their Subject Didactic Group work (an adapted form of Lesson/Learning study to suit daily teaching). In the study Variation theory was used booth for planning lessons as well as for analysing data. The result shows that variations on aspects relating to the position-principle of place value were successful for students learning, but the variations on aspects relating to the decimal-principle were not. The presentation highlights how the two principles of place value can be taught for students learning and the importance of not only teach one aspect at a time, but also the need for students understanding of how they relate to each other.

Summary

The study is conducted in a Swedish context, teaching 8 and 9 year old students the meaning of place value. Place value is the most important concept in decimalsystem (Sun & Bartolini Bussi, 2018). However related to the position-principle of place value, students often have a limited understanding of place value as merely a number of ones (Chambris, 2018). However it is also important to understand place value as a number of a certain unit (Chambris, 2018; Thanheiser, 2009; Fuson, Smith & Lo Cicero, 1997). Related to the decimal-principle of place value, students often struggles to explain the 10 for 1 trade (Verschaffel, Greer, De Corte, 2007), which is important to have a more deep understanding of place value (Thanheiser, 2009; Cawley, Parmar, Lucas-Fusco, Kilian, Foley, 2007).

In the study Variation theory (Marton, 2015) is used booth for designing lessons and analysing data. According to the theory, learning means discerning aspects of something specific (for instance place value), that has not yet been discerned. Such aspects are called critical aspects and are possible to discern if the learner experiences a variation of the aspect while other aspects are invariant (Marton, 2015; Marton & Booth, 2000).

The research question is: What variations of aspects connected to place value can create possibilities and contribute to students learning of place value?

The study was conducted togheter with six primary teachers, when they where working in their Subject Didactic Group (SDG), an adapted form of Lesson/Learning study to suit daily teaching (Mårtensson & Hansson, 2018). In the work it was investigated both what and how to teach for students understanding of place value, however focus in the study is on how to teach. Data comes from pre- and posttest conducted as semi-structured interviews (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2012) that was videorecorded, as well as videorecorded teaching of one of the teachers groups of students.

The result shows that variations on aspects relating to the position-principle of place value were successful for students learning, but the variations on aspects relating to the decimal-principle were not. One example on the former is it was created opportunities for and the students learned to describe place value both as a number of ones as well as a number of a specific unit. As an example of what the students was taught is they got to discuss the differences between describing place value for the digit ‘2’ in 124, as 2 tens and 200. When discussing the differences they took into account that the 2 tens was represented by two groups of tens, whereas 20 was represented by twenty ones. An example of the latter is that the student´s was given the opportunity to learn almost all of the focused aspects of the decimal-principle, one by one. However still, in the post-test very few of the students could explain the 10 for 1 trade. From a Variation theoretical point of view, one reason could be the student´s didn´t get the opportunity to see how the aspects related to each other.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Place value, Subject Didactic Groups, Variation theory

Lesson study in dutch primary education: what is needed for implementation and embedding?

Paper191Willemijn Schot, Utrecht University, Educational Consultancy and Professional Development, Netherlands

Londen '71Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

In this study we aim to identify the factors that promote or hinder the successful implementation of Lesson Study (LS) in Dutch primary schools. To this end, LS facilitators within seven Dutch primary schools were trained to guide team members through LS. The LS facilitators and school leaders were interviewed twice: once at the beginning of the LS about factors hypothesized to influence the successful implementation and once at the end about the process and the potential gains of the LS. The latter interview was also held with the teachers in the LS team. This study will provide insights in the demands of LS on a school organization specific to Dutch primary education. It will inform theory on LS about the transfer to another context and it will inform practice about the boundary conditions that need to be met in order to successful implement LS in a school.

Summary

In a recent review of the LS literature1, a theoretical model was proposed that states that ‘when teachers go through a LS cycle with the right intent, enough knowledge and skills, and under the right boundary conditions, they can achieve improved student learning through the ways of change in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and ideas, the creation of a professional community and teaching materials’ (see Figure 1). However, the literature on which this model is based mostly describes research in a non-Dutch context. Moreover, of the twenty-four sources that did focus on the Dutch context, only three studied primary education.

We therefore conducted a study in which we trained LS facilitators in seven primary schools to guide a team within their school through a LS cycle. Additionally, in line with previous research e.g. 2 and 3, a pilot with two schools preceding the current study showed that more involvement from the school leaders was desirable to support the Lesson Study team and to make sure the Lesson Study is aligned with the school plan and vision. Therefore, in three of the five training sessions for the LS facilitators, the school leaders of the participating schools also participated to discuss the school aims and the role of the school leader in successfully implementing and embedding LS in the school.

To gain insight in the factors that promote or hinder the successful implementation of LS in Dutch primary schools, the LS facilitators and school leaders will be interviewed twice: once at the beginning of the LS about factors hypothesized to influence the successful implementation (blue frame in Figure 1) and once at the end about the process and the potential gains of the LS (red frame). The latter interview will also be held with the teachers in the LS team.

Preliminary pilot data from two schools showed that similar factors as the ones described by de Vries et al. based on international literature over a wide range of educational contexts play a role in specifically in Dutch Primary education but that the school organization asks for specific support and guidance of Lesson Study. Data about the factors that promote or hinder the implementation of LS in this study will be collected in March 2019. Data about the process and the gains of LS will be collected June 2019. A full description will be available at the WALS. Additionally, the training developed for the LS facilitators and school leaders will be presented.

This study will help elaborate or specify the theoretical model presented in Figure 1 for the context of Dutch primary education and it will inform practice about the boundary conditions that need to be met to successfully implement LS in Dutch primary schools or similar (international) contexts.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Implementation, Learning organisations, Primary education

Leadership supporting networked learning communities: a singapore case

Paper239Salleh Hairon, National Institute of Education/Nanyang Technological University, Policy and Leadership Studies, Singapore

Londen '71Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

In 2009, the Singapore education ministry took the bold step in pushing for a system-wide implementation of professional learning communities (PLCs), along with a proposed a school-based PLC model employing three action theory models termed as Learning Circles, Lesson Study, and Action Research. The model is a development to its initial group-based model of PLC started in 2000. Of late, the education ministry has pushed for a u2018networku2019 model of PLC u2013 commonly termed as Networked Learning Communities (NLCs). There is a clear move towards broadening the practice of learning communities among school educators u2013 within groups, within schools and across schools. This expansion of scale does have significant bearing on how members in communities relate, learn and work with one another. This would then have significant implications on leadership u2013 specifically, how leaders, in its non-traditional sense, provide the necessary support in building effective learning communities for successful pedagogies.

Summary

Teacher learning communities have made much progress in the Singapore education system since 2000, culminating to a school- and system-wide usage of professional learning communities (PLCs). PLCs is considered as a broad concept to guide teacher collaborative learning, and draws from varying models such as action research, lesson study and learning study. Of late, the education ministry has set its eyes on expanding this concept further u2013 to the work of Networked Learning Communities (NLCs). NLCs are extensions of PLCs where collaborative learning among teachers move from within to across schools. The underlying rationale is education policymakersu2019 intent on increasing teaching quality through professional development platforms that support teachersu2019 drawing diverse resources within and across schools.

NLCs can be defined as clusters of schools working in partnership to enhance the quality of pupil learning, professional development, and school-to-school learning (Earl & Katz, 2007; Jackson & Temperley, 2006). This definition is however at best superficial as it fails to provide conceptual substance beyond just teachers working across schools to improve teaching and learning. This perhaps explain why definitions of NLCs are few, and they are generally understood in functional terms, reflecting an objective of collaboration between schools. The understanding of NLCs should thus go beyond the simple idea of u201ccollaboration in learningu201d which is essentially a description of its function. Although NLCs are in many ways similar to PLCs (Jackson & Temperley, 2006), to assume an NLC as simply an u201cextensionu201d or network of PLCs may be inadequate and lead to a failure to maximize the potential of NLCs. While collaboration in learning can be discerned from u201clearning communitiesu201d in that actors within communities are necessarily learning (Wenger, 1998), it is the understanding of what exactly is u201cnetworku201d that essentially shapes the concept of NLCs. The current conceptual understanding of NLCs is therefore under-theorized at conceptual and empirical levels. This may eventually hamper its effective implementation including the leadership that is so needed to support teacher learning communities in general, and the actualization of the full benefits that NLCs can give. In addition, the lack of its conceptual understanding may also desensitize both planners and practitioners to the contextual conditions that can potentially hamper its effective implementation. The latter is pertinent insofar as the literature pertaining to NLCs, along with its close connection with networked learning (McConnell, Hodgson, & Dirckinck-Holmfeld, 2012), has emanated predominantly from the West.

The purpose of this paper is to give greater clarity to the conceptual understanding of NLCs, especially drawing from the literature on networks, so as to establish the knowledge base on NLCs. Drawing from relevant literature, five network concepts will be discussed, comprising u2018lateralityu2019, u2018mutualityu2019, u2018flexibilityu2019, u2018diversityu2019, and u2018temporalityu2019. With these key features bring brought to bear with greater clarity, practitioners, policymakers and researchers can move forward to building the knowledge base and practice of NLCs. Clarity to these concepts would also provide clarity in which leadership supporting NLCs can operate effectually. Leadership, and its effectiveness, is after all highly determined by its contexts.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Leadership, Networked Learning Communities, Professional Learning Communities

Lesson Study and its impact on reducing the level of individual autonomy of the school teacher

Paper66Tursynay Kopzhassarova, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools, Center of Excellence, Kazakhstan

Londen '71Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The aim of the research was to see how participation of teachers in Lesson Study influences on their level of autonomy.

To achieve the goals of the study, the methods of observation, analysis, comparison were used, reflective reports of students and data on the observation of lessons.

The report examines the results of the study of the starting potential of schools through the analysis of the initial data of teachers in in-service professional development courses and the impact of changes on school culture, as well as reflective reports of teachers.

As a result of the research we can state the decrease of the level of autonomy of individual teachers, as defined at the beginning of the research, the strengthening of cooperation among teachers and building a culture of teamwork through joint planning, observation and discussion.

The results of the study shows the impact of Lesson Study on school cooperative culture.

Summary

The report "Lesson study: its impact on reducing the level of individual autonomy of school teachers" discusses the problems of professional cooperation of teachers of secondary schools.

The purpose of this study was to see how participation in Lesson Study project affects the level of individual autonomy of the teacher at school.

The theoretical basis of the study are the works of Pete Dudley "Lesson study: a handbook" and "Handbook for teachers on Lesson Study" by Toshiya Chichibu

To achieve the purpose and objectives of the study, the methods of observation, analysis, comparison and questioning were used. The report analyses the data on the starting position of schools, collected by the participants of the in-service professional development courses (levelled) on the programs "Teacher Leadership in the School" and "Teacher Leadership in the Pedagogical Community" during school-based practice. The data, obtained on research lessons, organized with the aim of improving the teaching practice of colleagues, the impact of introduced changes on the school culture and the reflective reports of teachers were analyzed as well as.

Analysis of data on starting positions of schools and questionnaires of teachers during the courses showed a high level of individual autonomy of teachers in some schools. Schools with a high level of individual autonomy of teachers were characterized as having teachers limiting themselves to the frame of their classroom and relationships with their students only, as well as a zealous attitude to own achievements and a low level of experience exchange.

The report also describes the changes in schools introduced by the teachers during the practice period, particularly by the organization of groups of Lesson study. Evaluation of intermediate results demonstrates that the participation of teachers in the Lesson study process reduced the level of individual autonomy of teachers and improved the school culture.

The research result are as following:

There was a decrease in the level of autonomy of individual teachers, which had been defined by the survey at the first face-to-face stage. The strengthening of cooperation among teachers were observed.

The culture of teamwork was built through joint planning, joint observation and joint discussion.

The teachers' leadership was developed and reflexive skills were obtained.

Professional development, based on experience exchange, and improvement of teaching practice took place.

We think that the results of the study can be used by the leaders of secondary schools in the organization and conduct of the Lesson study project.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Individual autonomy, Professional development, School culture

The way of a portfolio contributing to the improving lesson of the career education in Japan

Paper215Hiroyuki Ebita, Graduate School of Nagoya University, Education and Human Development, Japan

Madrid '69Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The purpose of this study clarify the present conditions and the problem of the portfolio to use by the class of the career education to perform by "integrated studies" and "TOKKATSU (educating the whole child) " in an elementary and secondary education of Japan from the viewpoint of education method studies. In addition, it is to investigate the way of the improvement of the lesson from the portfolio which a child described.

By the study method of this study, I added it to the "continuity" and "expandability" factor of practice prescribed in a precedent study and set a "time perspective" concept as a rule factor to contribute to the improving lesson of the career education newly.

As a result of analysis with a visualized figure, it became clear that there were few action examples that crossed (past, present, and future) in three tenses.

Summary

A problem and purpose

Jones & Shelton (2006) defined the portfolio as follows. It is the collection which it makes every result to demonstrate the learning of own, a skill, achievements organization, structure for a certain purpose and gathered up. The importance of the career education to promote the career development was pointed out from the early 21st century, and an action begins through "integrated studies" and " TOKKATSU (educating the whole child) " in Japan. The utilization of the portfolio was suggested, and the use spread in Japan to raise quality of the learning in the class of such a career education. However, further improvement is necessary about the quality of the contents which the child should fill in a portfolio with. Because, there is the practice to promote constant " reflection ", but it is found that it was rare as for the practice that realized the learning with the "continuity" and "expandability" with all schools class when I analyze the portfolio of the child in the result report of the lesson study to promote the carrier development in the elementary and secondary education (Ebita and others, 2018). Therefore, the further utilization and improvement of the portfolio are necessary to improve the class of the career education.

Therefore, a purpose of this study is to clarify the rule factor of a necessary portfolio for the career education of the elementary and secondary education.

Methods

In addition to the " continuity" and "expandability" which was the rule factor of the precedent study, I aimed at the way of the portfolio which contributed to the improving lesson of the career education by adding the "time perspective " concept taken up in Ebita (2018) to analysis newly. We made a figure of bubble and planned visualization on this occasion. The "time perspective " concept is " desire to a future aim and the plan, the structure of a future aim and the plan, feelings for the past and the present and the future that have been brought about from mutual linkage processes of the personal psychological past, present,and future " (Tsuzuki, 1999).

Results and conclusion

The following things became clear by making a figure of bubble and visualizing it in this study, ①In the practice study of the career education, the difference that degree did not look clear so far in straddle of the tense when I started from "the present" became clear visually. ②It became clear that there were few practical examples that crossed in three tenses-past, present, and future-.

We may perform a career education in the class of the school more effectively by confirming the above-mentioned result, and utilizing.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Career Education, Portfolio, The Elementary and Secondary Education in Japan

The analytic stance and depth of noticing in Lesson Study

Paper350Anne Mette Karlsen, University of Stavanger, Norway

Madrid '69Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

To explore the analytic stance and depth of noticing (van Es, 2011), this study has dug deeper into two LS groups’ post RL discussions at a lower secondary school. The study has identified some crucial elements for teachers’ learning processes, regarding types of interactions that may extend or narrow teachers’ professional noticing. Sharing of rich descriptions of evidence of student thinking appeared as a necessary foundation for the deepening of the teacher groups’ analytic approach. The study highlights the importance of a groups’ openness and attention to the collected data and the common willingness to go deep into interpretations. Exploratory talk (Littleton and Mercer, 2013) is identified as a talk mode that deepened the analytic stance and depth of noticing. The study answers a need for research on internal mechanisms in LS discussions (Warwick et al., 2016) and how interactions in a LS group influence noticing (Amador and Weiland, 2015).

Summary

The opportunities for teachers to collaborate with colleagues have increased in recent years, but our understanding of which features of cooperation that contribute to learning has not increased proportionally (Opfer & Pedder, 2011). This lack of knowledge is confirmed by Little (2012) who argues that there are few studies that highlight what is happening “on the inside” of the teaching work. However, recent research on teacher talk has revealed patterns that may preserve practice rather than contribute to teacher learning. Examples of such patterns are descriptions and exchange of stories (Junge, 2012) and talk that coordinates or legitimizes practice (Kvam, 2014) together with absence of an analytic approach to student thinking and teaching.

Bringing teachers together in the context of Lesson Study or Learning Study will not in itself guarantee teacher learning. It may preserve practice, as argued by Wood: “They may simply share and reconfirm their taken-for-granted ways of teaching” (Wood, 2017, p. 122). Warwick et al. (2016) emphasize that we need more knowledge about the internal mechanisms in LS discussions among teachers. Likewise, Amador & Weiland (2015) ask for more research on the conversations and the role of participants in lesson analysis meetings, and ask for further details “about for how the interactions within the group influence noticing” (Amador & Weiland, 2015, 124). Teachers’ professional noticing can be understood as “an expertise that includes attending to children’s strategies, interpreting children’s understanding and deciding how to respond” (Jacobs, Lamb & Philipp, 2010). The framework of noticing designed by van Es (2011) suggests four levels of noticing.

This study intended to dig deeper into teachers’ discussions in the context of two different Lesson Study groups at a lower secondary school, in order to explore the analytic stance and depth of noticing in the discussions. The focus is on whether teacher discussions in the context of Lesson Study provide opportunities for analytical approaches to student learning in form of high levels of noticing. The study also investigates the interaction and communication within the group regarding what types of interactions that may promote or constrain the depth and stance of the analytic approach. The research question is:

In the context of Lesson Study, how can teacher discussions be described, regarding the analytic stance and depth of noticing and the characteristics of interaction among the participants?

Analysis showed that sharing of rich descriptions of evidence in form of collected data from the classroom gathered through spesific observation forms contributed to the teacher groups’ analytic approach. The study highlights the importance of a Lesson Study groups’ openness and attention to the collected data and the willingness to go deep into interpretations. The importance of meaning making as a social interaction at the group level is emphasized. Exploratory talk (Littleton and Mercer, 2013) is identified as a talk mode that deepened the analytic stance and depth of noticing.Summarized, this study contributes to the field by identifying some crucial elements for teacher learning in the context of Lesson Study, regarding teachers’ professional noticing.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Lesson Study, Noticing, Post RL discussions

Lesson Study: Effective Teacher Professional Development for our time

Paper390Ann Marie Gurhy, Marino Institute of Education, Mathematics, Ireland

Madrid '69Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

This paper investigates the potential of Lesson Study (LS) as a vehicle of collaborative professional learning in Assessment for Learning (AfL) strategies and techniques. Drawn from a wider doctoral study in one Irish primary school (Gurhy, 2017), it considers the impact engaging in LS had on teachers’ skills, knowledge, and use of AfL in mathematics lessons, and their beliefs towards AfL as a form of assessment. Specifically, it explores the effectiveness of LS as a model of teacher professional development (PD). The research utilised a mixed methods approach within a practitioner action research case study strategy. Three teachers participated in the LS group over the course of one academic year, two other teachers and myself as insider-researcher, thereby offering unique and valuable insights regarding LS from within practice in the Irish context.Results suggest participants found LS to be a particularly effective model of teacher professional development in AfL.

Summary

This practitioner action research case study took place in the school where I teach, a vertical, urban, all-girls Primary School in Ireland with an enrolment of 438 students. Fifty-one students in fourth class took part in the study, along with three teachers (two other teachers and myself as researcher). As employed in this research, Lesson Study (LS) is characterised as a teacher-led, peer-to-peer, research-oriented, practice-based, sustained, systematic and collaborative model of practice development and continuing professional learning (e.g., Dudley, 2013); the principal purpose of which is to improve the quality of teaching and learning through a collaborative, reflective and recursive process (e.g., Cajkler, Wood, Norton & Pedder, 2014).

To date in the Irish context, no comparable research has explored the use of LS to impact teachers’ skills, knowledge, and use of AfL in mathematics lessons, and their attitudes and beliefs towards AfL as a form of assessment. This study provides a practitioner researcher’s perspective of the field, thus inside-outside (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993). The study was informed by two main areas of research. First, the LS group was conceptualised as a community of practice in that it accords with Wenger’s (1998) description of mutual engagement towards a joint enterprise grounded in a sociocultural view of learning. Second, Lewis’ developing theoretical model elucidating how she thinks LS produces instructional improvement (e.g., 2009; 2011; 2015) was also used as a theoretical frame.

The following research question was addressed: Is Lesson Study a feasible, worthwhile, efficient and effective model of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in AfL and will it improve teachers’ skills, knowledge and use of AfL and their attitudes and beliefs towards AfL as a form of assessment? Three cycles of three lessons of LS were completed over the course of one academic year, including 24 pre- and post-live lesson meetings. Data sources included teachers’ learning logs, written live lesson observations, the researcher’s diary, post-lesson discussion transcripts, video recordings and students’ focus groups. Employing Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-phase guide to thematic analysis, the overarching theme identified from the data was that ‘LS is effective CPD for our time’ and this was further delineated into three subthemes suggesting that LS is: challenging but rewarding; a tool for deprivatising classroom practice; and a process that impacts mathematical thinking, learning and classroom practice.

We enjoyed participating in the LS process, particularly the time spent planning lessons, reflecting on practice and sharing professional knowledge and resources. We highlighted benefits that had accrued such as the apparent positive impact LS had on classroom practice, teaching and learning, professional dialogue, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), collaborative practice and the deprivatisation of teaching. We believed that engagement in LS as a model of CPD had a greater impact on subsequent teaching and learning in our classrooms than other models of CPD in which we had participated, possibly due to the fact it was implemented in our own classrooms over a sustained period. In sum, we considered LS to be a particularly effective model of CPD for our time.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Lesson Study, Teacher Learning

Seeking effective implementation of school-wide collaborative lesson research (CLR)

Symposium33Akihiko Takahashi, DePaul University, College of Education, United States of America; Shelley Friedkin, Mills College, United States of America; Tad Watanabe, Kennesaw State university, United States of America; Catherine Lewis, Mills College, United States of America

Omloop NoordTue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Collaborative Lesson Research (CLR) was proposed in 2016 (Takahashi & McDougal) for the schools outside Japan as an ideal entry point for implementing Lesson Study. Since then, CLR has been used in several Lesson Study projects to establish school-wide Lesson Study. The aim of this symposium is to discuss what may be an ideal way to introduce CLR to teachers and school leaders and what may be the potential obstacles for establishing school-wide CLR based on the case study reports. The U.S. case will describe a way to transform volunteer Lesson Study efforts into school-wide CLR and its impact to the school. The Qatar case describes the challenges among schools and teachers where the strong unproductive beliefs of teaching mathematics exist. The third presentation proposes a 5-day institute model of introducing school-wide CLR. The case with Brazilian teachers and teacher leaders shows some potentials of using this model.

Summary

Many Lesson Study projects outside of Japan have been conducted by enthusiastic volunteer teachers independent of their school professional development activities and struggle to make a vital impact on student learning. On the other hand, Lesson Study in Japan is most often conducted as part of a highly structured school-wide project aimed at addressing common teaching-learning challenges. In order to make vital impacts on student and teacher learning, simply imitating the superficial features of Lesson Study in not enough. Collaborative Lesson Research (CLR) was proposed in 2016 (Takahashi & McDougal) for the schools outside Japan as an ideal entry point for implementing Lesson Study. Since then, CLR has been used in several Lesson Study projects outside Japan to establish school-wide Lesson Study. The aim of this symposium is to discuss what may be an ideal way to introduce CLR to teachers and school leaders, and what may be the obstacles for establishing school-wide CLR.

The symposium consists of three case study reports from U.S., Qatar, and Brazil.

The first presentation by Shelley Friedkin, Mills College, USA shares the ideas from a case study from the Bay Area in the U.S. that examined school’s 3-year journey resulting in a school-wide effort where every educator in the school participates in lesson study. Outcomes for the school include a shift in learning culture for educators, an aligned school-wide pedagogical approach along with an increase in student learning. The positive outcomes from this case may be helpful for teachers to gain insights for involving more teachers from the school building to make their Lesson Study school-wide.

The second presentation by Tad Watanabe, Kennesaw State university, USA is based on a case from Qatar independent schools where the Project IMPULS at Tokyo Gakugei University and Qatar University support to establish the school-wide CLR. The results of the case study suggest the existence of potential challenges in supporting teachers to shift their belief and pedagogy from teach by telling to teaching through problem solving (TTP). Despite the fact that Qatar University and the Ministry of Education’s efforts providing workshops and curriculum resources, some of the teachers’ belief on teaching mathematics remain unchanged. The presentation will discuss how CLR could contribute such challenging situation to support teachers to improve teaching and learning.

The thirds presentation by Akihiko Takahashi, DePaul University, USA shares ideas for introducing CLR to the schools and the teachers where Lesson Study has not been used. The 5-day intensive institute model for nurturing teacher leaders by coming up a clear research purpose, conducting Kyouzai Kenkyuu, and designing a unit and a plan for the research lesson will be shared.

Discussant, Catherine Lewis, Mills College, USA, provides feedbacks for each case and share her insights on potential of school-wide CLR and its implementation.

Based on these three cases and the discussant’s insights the symposium will invite the audience to discuss an effective way to establish school-wide lesson study to the schools outside Japan.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Case study from the San Francisco Bay Area: Building School-wide Lesson Study (CLR)

In school-wide lesson study (CLR), teams throughout a school focus on a long-term vision for student learning, using Lesson Study to test and refine ideas to bring that vision to life. The activity required to support a school moving from a few pioneering lesson study groups to school-wide lesson study rests on building structures that allow a flow back and forth between working as a whole staff, working in lesson study teams and working daily in classrooms. A case study from the Bay Area examines one school’s 3-year journey resulting in a school-wide effort where every educator in the school participates in lesson study. This study shows the school’s initial work of building a research theme, theory of action and indicators of progress and how leadership from within the school planned, scheduled and managed the ongoing lesson study cycles and embedded the findings from the post-lesson discussions into daily classroom practice. Outcomes for this school include a shift in learning culture for educators, an aligned school-wide pedagogical approach along with an increase in student learning. The school's changes will be documented through lesson study artifacts, video clips and student achievement data.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

Case study from Qatar: Teacher beliefs as a factor for effective implementation of CLR

Mathematics education in Qatar has been going through some major transformations. One of the recent changes is the establishment of mathematics standards which are internationally benchmarked and place a major emphasis on problem solving. To help Qatari teachers develop their capacity to teach the Japanese way of teaching mathematics through problem solving (TTP), IMPULS at Tokyo Gakugei University and Qatar University (QU) conducted a 3-year professional development project. The project employed school-wide CLR as the main mechanism for teacher learning. The participants generally felt they learned quite a bit about both TTP and CLR. However, even at the end of the project there were still evidences that indicated that teacher learning in CLR was not optimized. For example, post-lesson discussion often ended up with simply sharing the observations, and some participants continued to wonder if TTP is appropriate for low achieving students. These evidences show that underlying teacher beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning impact the effectiveness of TTP. Thus, as IMPULS and QU began the scale-up project, we assessed Qatari teachers’ beliefs using an instrument consisting of 20 non-productive belief statements taken from NCTM’s Principles to Action. We will share our findings in this presentation.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Early results of the pilot project for guiding mathematics educators to establish a school-wide CLR: Designing and implementing 5-day intensive institute for Brazilian teacher leaders.

An important entry point for establishing CLR is to come up a clear research purpose followed by Kyouzai Kenkyuu prior to developing a plan for teaching. This process is often neglected because of the lack of resources and knowledgeable facilitators. The intensive institute was designed to support teachers and school leaders to experience the process of CLR cycle to come up with a clear research purpose, conduct Kyouzai Kenkyuu, and design a unit and a plan for the research lesson. Although this process often takes 5 to 6 weeks in Japan, the intensive institute compress it into 5 full days to complete the first draft of the lesson research proposal. This 5-day model has been tested and modified in several summer institutes in the U.S. The most recent format of this institute was used to nurture Brazilian Educators to become CLR leaders to lead their colleagues in their country. The results of the pre and post- survey on teachers beliefs using an instrument consisting of 20 non-productive belief statements taken from NCTM’s Principles to Action shows some significant difference on teacher belief in teaching mathematics.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Collaborative Lesson Research, Mathematics, School-wide

Workshop WOTS ‘we own the school’

Workshop74Freek Wevers, We Own The School, Netherlands

On Fifth 1Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Last year our team presented the first version of our tool; the game ‘WOTS’ ‘We Own The School’ in the Netherlands and at an international conference. The goal of game is to talk with your students, teachers and school organization about ownership for students in your school and how you can change ownership of the students in our school(s). Last nine month we worked hard on a new version, using all the feedback we got from our network nationally and internationally.

The research still aims at further refining the Taxonomy of Ownership model and the characteristics of the six types of schools. It examines behaviour of students, teachers and the organizational properties to be able to evolve the model into a tool to enhance the understanding of the concept of ownership of learning. The research uses qualitative instruments, for example, experience sharing educational games

For more information http://www.weowntheschool.com

Summary

Practical possibilities.

We believe “ownership of learning” to be a key concept in improving individual or collective learning and development of students, teachers, and school leaders. Therefore, the research group developed various active forms of discussion. The group is highly interested in the public’s response to the concept definition, the model and presuppositions concerning “ownership of learning”.

The international congress WALS 2019 provides us with a unique possibility to accelerate and intensify our research and to start an international community for ownership of our student in the school all over the world. The model will be shared, refined and improved in the workshops sessions. The group is also, very much looking forward to collect new ideas and insights from other participants. It is a matter of mutual receiving and sharing of ideas. We invite participants in our WALS workshop to discuss how students, teachers and school leaders/principals can work together to enhance the development of ownership in their schools. This tool can be helpful to start the conversation with your students, teacher, school organization and researchers about ownership. We hope we can start with an international community about ‘We Own The School’. Goal is to share and learn from each other about organizing ownership for students in our different schools and different parts in the world.

Format & approaches

You can find the timeplan for our workshop in the uploaded table.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Ownership of learning, Practise based research, Professional Learning Community

Q-card:enhancing students learning during teaching and learning process the classroom

Paper304Shamsina Mohd Yusof, Seremban District Education Office, Malaysia

On Fifth 3Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The study is focusing on constructing question as a thinking and communication tool in students learning. The teachers in the panel as well as the middle leaders involved in classroom observation during the lesson study cycle. The class was conducted by a female teacher with 27 students. Every group in the classroom will be provided with a set Q-Card (Question Card) to guide the students to create questions. The observer used a checklist to record the students’ responses. The result shows that by using the Q-Card the students manage to create questions up to the higher level order of thinking skills . It’s allow the students to brainstorm the solution of the task collaboratively. This is also involved differentiated learning among the students in the classroom. Meanwhile the collaboration among the teachers in the panel through the activity of lesson study help the teachers to improve their pedagogy.

Summary

Questioning is a tool of thinking and communication skill used among students during teaching and learning . The purpose of the study is to enhance the students ability to create questions and gives them the opportunity to propose the question to their friends while presenting the group task. The teachers in the panel as well as the middle leader involved in classroom observation during the lesson study cycle. The target group for this study was an Economics subject class in a school in Seremban district. The class was conducted by a female teacher with 27 students of mix gender. Every group in the classroom will be provided with a set Q-Card (Question Card) to guide the students to create questions.The question that has been created will be used for the student as an ignition to start the meaningful conversation among the presenter and their classroom audience. The observer used a checklist to record the students’ responses. The Q-Card includes Revised Bloom taxonomy hierarchal emphasizes on the ability of the student to create and propose questions. The result shows that by using the Q-Card the students manage to create questions up to the level of higher order thinking skills . Besides that, through the recorded responses we realized the active participation took place. It’s allow the students to brainstorm solution collaboratively. Students’ have more confident while presenting their task. This is also involved differentiated learning among the students in the classroom. The Q-Card also has been proven to measure students understanding about the lesson that they had been tought in their respective class. Meanwhile the collaboration among the teachers in the panel through the activity of lesson study help the teacher to improve their pedagogy.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Creating question, Differentiated learning, Q-Card

A LS program for teacher's abilities to evaluate children's developments: with video recordings

Paper95Takayoshi Sasaya, Mie University, Japan

On Fifth 3Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to clarify results in teachers' abilities to evaluate children's development from Lesson Studies (LS).Recordings with an interval of a class evoke children's developments through comparing between the two recordings. LS with more two recordings, reflections and consultative meetings may result in developing teachers' abilities to evaluate children's development. The LS program with these elements was built in this study. Interview data were gathered from all teachers (8 teachers and a principal) in a school. The results from the lesson teacher were that: (1) he found children’s developments for two months, even if he felt their less-development before the LS program. (2) He found children's problems from less-development. (3) He found self-development. The results from the other teachers were that: (1) they got perspective on children's development. (2) They increased motivation for LS with video recordings and consultative meetingandfound a diversity of children’s development.

Summary

It has been often discussed that Lesson Studies (LS) are very important for teachers' developments and for building up collegiality in a school. Some studies have claimed that advantaged teachers have abilities of analyzing and evaluating of children’s development in classes. Through evaluation of children’s development, teachers can regulate their lessons and can support children with special needs. However, little agreement has been reached concerning how teachers get abilities of evaluation of children’s development in LS. The problem seems to lie in the fact that the evaluating abilities are implicit.

The evaluation of children’s development is a formative assessment by a teacher in every lesson. Teachers promote their lessons if they find children's developments in the lessons. In contrast, they modify their lessons if they do not find children's developments. Teachers implicitly evaluate children's developments in their lessons. LS have the advantage that LS encourage teachers’ implicit abilities. The present study was undertaken to clarify results in teachers' abilities to evaluate children's development from LS.

Teachers reflect on the value and the background of their behavior and make their implicit abilities explicit and verbalized (Schön, 1983). Some teachers make the abilities shareable in collaborative reflections. LS have an open class and consultative meeting. Teachers' implicit abilities turn explicit through reflecting in the meeting. Video recordings of classes reinforce reflections and also make a chance to evaluate children's development. Two recordings with an interval of a class evoke children's developments, because teachers can find children’s developments through comparing between the two recordings. LS with more two recordings, reflections and consultative meetings may result in developing teachers' abilities to evaluate children's development. The LS program with these elements was built in this study.

The present study put its focus on specific results from the LS program. The LS program was conducted in an elementary school in 2018 August. Two arithmetic lessons in a fifth-grade class was recorded at one month (May) and three months (July) after the new school year begun. Interview data were gathered from all teachers (8 teachers and a principal) in the school after the LS program. The data were categorized to analyze aspects of the results.

The results from the lesson teacher were that: (1) he found children’s developments for two months, even if he felt their less-development before the LS program. (2) He found children's problems from less-development in the recordings. (3) He found self-development, for example, the abilities to support children with special needs and to predict children's understandings. The results from the other teachers were that: (1) they concurrently understood the significance to evaluate children’s development. They also got perspective on children's development, for example, an expression on children's face and class atmosphere. (2) They increased motivation for LS with video recordings and consultative meeting. They found a diversity of children’s development. They increased self-efficacy for collaborative LS as well.

It is interpreted from these results that this LS program encouraged teachers’ abilities to evaluate children’s development and increased teachers’ motivation for LS.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Children's developments, Lesson Studies, Video Recordings

Teacher students’ reasoning about pupils’ mean value knowledge

Paper211Christina Svensson, Malmö University LS/NMS, Sweden

Paris '69Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

This study analyses how collegial research design with teacher educators and researchers may develop knowledge regarding teaching within teacher education programme (Brante, Holmqvist, Holmquist & Palla, 2013; Marton & Lo, 2007; Runesson, 2011). The purpose of this study is to investigate characterising features on teacher students’ understanding about pupils´ knowledge on mean values in grade six, after having participated in a lesson based on theoretical assumptions. Three lessons have previously been conducted within the study, where theoretical assumptions with premise from the pattern of variation (Marton) mostly contributed to a changed educational design in the execution of the lesson. The theoretical assumptions did in this study contribute to both the construction, and the instructions, for specific tasks during the lesson. The results indicate changes in the features of how teacher students´ reason about pupils´ procedural knowledge on mean value.

Summary

Background

Research on the training of mathematics teachers is arguably important, since the quality of teacher education influences the quality of future teachers, which in turn influence pupils achievements. However, research into ways of developing methods of instruction in teacher training is limited (Skott, Mosvold & Sakonidis, 2018). The purpose of this study is therefore to contribute with new knowledge on how education-specific tasks and instructions, based on theoretical assumptions, may offer teacher students possibilities to increased better understanding about learning of mean value. Hence, the research question is: what characterises teacher students understanding on pupils´ knowledge, from oral reasoning about mean value?

Method

The choice of method is Learning study (Marton & Lo, 2007), which is a cyclic method-developing process that sets out from variation theory´s three fundamental concepts: separation, simultaneity and variation. Previously in this study, three research lessons in three different student groups in the grade 4-6 programme have been conducted. Critical aspects have appeared during the educational design based on structured pattern of variation: generalisation, contrast, separation and fusion (Marton, 2014). The critical aspects have shown how the teacher students express a procedural examination of the pupils´ understanding of mean value. From these critical aspects, the educational design of the lesson has changed, with support from the variation theory concepts generalisation and contrast (a.a). The latter generate to present median, mean value and mode synchronously and simultaneously, where the numbers are kept constant while the mean values vary, in order to develop both conceptual and procedural understanding. First, the teacher students are offered the possibility to solve the tasks. Secondly, they are offered via collegial discussions, to critically examine what difficulties the tasks may cause the pupils understanding of mean value. The latter in combination with discussions about instrumental and relational understanding (Skemp, 1976) of mean value. Relational understanding is relevant for trainee teachers’ extended knowledge, which in this study involves being able to gain insight into the pupils’ capacity to learn about mean value. The data sampling consists of videotaped lessons (2), videotaped teacher student discussions (16 participants) and audiorecorded teacher student discussions (16 participants) from a designed before- and after test. Each lesson began and ended with the designed before- and after test, consisting of videotaped discussions between teachers and pupils in grade six.

Conclusion and discussion

Two critical aspects were found in relation between the study´s educational design, tasks and the teacher students´ expressed reasoning about pupils´ knowledge on mean value. First that relational understanding (Skemp, 1976) are connected to pupils´ motivation and confidence in solving tasks about mean value. Secondary, that the pupils´ conceptual understanding is connected to how the solution is structurally presented by the pupil. However, this indicates a change in the teacher students´ expressed reasoning about the pupils´ procedural knowledge on mean value. This leads to discussions about the importance of both education designed tasks and teaching instructions based on theoretical assumptions.

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Mean value, Teacher education, Variation theory

Preschool teacher’s supporting role for children’s learning about distance in free play situations

Paper229Christina Svensson, Malmö University LS/NMS, Sweden

Paris '69Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

This study analyses how collaborative professional development based on variation theory contributes to highlighting children's learning of distance assessment in free play situations. Learning that is crucial for the children to be participating in social interaction at preschool. Six preschool teachers together with a researcher lead Malmö City pilot study about developing knowledge about the importance of instructed teaching for contribute children's learning in preschool. The results indicate the need to offer preschool teachers collegial development opportunities based on theoretical input. The latter as importance for both visualize children’s learning and the teachers supporting role for learning in the instructed teaching activities during free play.

Summary

Background

There is arguments for successful professional development such as it should be in accordance with national goals and guidelines, possess a subject content and how this should be taught (Desimone, 2009; Timperley, Wilson, Barrar & Fung, 2007). This study is based on the criteria for success and Holmqvist, Brante & Tullgren's (2012) arguments for contribute theoretical input to examining the preschool children's expressed learning in advance to the intentioned learning object. Also, how learning is put in a larger context by connecting it with real situations based on the participants' own teaching activities (Ling, Chik & Pang, 2006). Bruner (1996) describes a didactic perspective as a goal-oriented learning, where what, how and why should be described by the teacher. The role of the teacher is thereby important for the child to develop an understanding of different aspects of phenomena. The aim of the study, based on previous studies, is to contribute with new knowledge about how the supportive role of pre-school teachers in the preschool can contribute children's learning in relation to social interaction during free play situations. Which contributes to the question of what knowledgeable children make visible about distance during free play situations.

Method

The method consists on a Learning study approach (Marton & Lo, 2007), which means a cyclical method-developing process based on the variation theory`s three concepts; discernment, simultaneous and variation. The latter, by starting from contrast and generalization (Marton, 2014). Where contrast, in this study, is made up of distance and non-distance for the possibilities of being included in social interaction. The learning object consists of children's knowledge of distance assessment in advance to social interaction during free play situations. Two cycles have been carried out within the method-developing process (Marton & Lo, 2007). The data sampling consists of videotaped pre-observations (5) and videotaped teaching lessons (10) All pre-observations are carried out during free play situations. Free in so far as the children themselves have chosen the play activity.

Conclusion and discussion

There are some critical aspects found in relation to children’s developed learning of distance assessment. Firstly, distance assessment in relative to length. Secondly, distance assessment in relative to time. The results indicate how new procedures that are made visible and reflected during the collaborative meetings contribute new findings about how children's developed learning about distance assessment has a crucial importance for being a part of social interaction during free play situations. This lead to discussion about the importance of collegial observation, planning, teaching and reflection based on theoretical elements for support children’s discernment of the phenomena. It also lead to discussions about the importance of goal-oriented teaching (Bruner, 1996). But also the importance of visualize the teachers supporting role for contribute children's opportunities to learn in social interaction. Furthermore, the significance of extended knowledge of developed instructed teaching in the teachers’ own goal-oriented activities in advance to children's expressed learning (Holmqvist, Brante & Tullgren, 2012).

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Preschool, Professional development, Variation theory

Learning activity - a didactic tool in task design and in teachers' orchestration of algebraic work

Paper326Jenny Fred, Stockholm University, Sweden

Rome '96Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The issue to discuss in this paper is how principles of learning activity can work as a didactic tool in task design and in teachers' orchestration of algebraic work and thus enabling pupils to distinguish critical aspects regarding the ability to express and justify pattern generalization algebraically. The data comes from a learning study conducted in second and third grade. In the design and in the analysis of the research lessons learning activity together with Radford's work on patterns and pattern generalizations have worked as theoretical framework. The results indicate how the principles of learning activity: problem situation, learning model and contradictions, can serve as tools to direct the pupils' awareness to the mathematical structures of patterns. Furthermore, the results indicate the importance of the interaction between task design and teacher orchestration of classroom work.

Summary

The issue for this paper is to discuss how principles of learning activity (Davydov, 2008) can work as tools in task design and teachers’ orchestration of classroom work, thus enabling pupils to distinguish critical aspects regarding the ability to express and justify pattern generalization algebraically. Furthermore, the discussion will focus on the importance of the interaction between task design and teacher orchestration of classroom work.

Teaching consists of complex interaction between tasks, instructions, orchestration of classroom work, the content of learning, pupils and teachers (Newman, Griffin & Cole, 1989). Larsson (2015) emphasizes teachers’ need for tools to be able to handle whole-class discussions that take their point of departure in pupils’ different ideas. Ryve, Larsson and Nilsson (2011) emphasize pupils’ need for mediating tools for their thinking and communication. In relation to the content of learning, Marton (2006) emphasizes the importance of creating necessary conditions for pupils to discern critical aspects, that is, aspects of a specific and delimited content of learning that in relation to a specific group of pupils can be assumed to be critical for their learning.

The findings of this paper are included in a more extensive learning study research project on classroom teaching and learning of algebra in the early grades. The purpose of the overall research project is to explore features of teaching that create necessary conditions for pupils to be engaged in algebraic work. The research question addressed in this paper is: What are the salient features of task design and teacher's orchestration of the classroom work in order to enable students to distinguish critical aspects, regarding algebraic pattern generalization?

Learning study (Marton & Tsui, 2004; Marton, 2015) has been used as an approach for data production. The learning study was conducted in second and third grade. The data consist of video recordings from three research lessons and transcriptions of those. In the design and analyses of the research lessons the theory of learning activity (Davydov, 2008) together with Radford's work (eg, 2006, 2010, 2011) on patterns and pattern generalizations have worked as theoretical framework.

The results indicate that the principles of learning activity: problem situation, learning model and contradictions, can serve as tools regarding directing the pupils’ awareness to the mathematical structures of pattern. The following was developed and refined in the iteration process of the research lessons: (1) problem situations that challenged pupils to theoretical exploring the mathematical structures of patterns; (2) a learning model that enabled the pupils to collectively reflect about the mathematical structures of patterns; (3) contradictions that operated as starting points in the pupils' collective exploration of mathematical structures of patterns.

Learning Studies
Critical aspects, Learning activity, Orchestration of classroom work

Building student success: Engaging in STEM Lesson Study at the tertiary level

Paper384Juliet Langman, Jorge Solis, University of Texas at San Antonio, Bicultural Bilingual Studies, United States of America

Rome '96Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

This paper examines the first year of a lesson study project and focuses on the individual and institutional affordances and constraints that affected the process of the lesson study cycle as well as the results of two cycles of lesson study from the perspectives of lesson study team members, affiliated engineering and physics faculty, and importantly, student learners. The context for the study is are two gateway STEM courses taught at a large public university with a designation of Hispanic Serving and a student body of more than 50% minority and often bilingual students. The challenges associated with developing sustainable student learning focused pedagogical change is examined through a comparison of two newly formed lesson study groups, one focused on engineering coursework, the second focused on physics coursework.

Summary

Lesson study at the tertiary level is relatively new. Lesson study however, provides a framework in which to consider critical issues to student success, a focus of particular importance for universities working to enhance educational opportunities for first-generation college students. In this context, failure rates in gateway STEM courses can be quite high (over 30%) and have a direct impact on graduation.

The potential impact of pedagogical change on university level student success in STEM drives this research. The challenges associated with developing sustainable student learning focused pedagogical change is examined through a comparison of two newly formed lesson study groups, an engineering group and a physics group.

Two lesson study groups comprised of faculty and research assistants from the College of Education together with Engineering and Physics respectively are the focus on this study. Drawing on a sociocultural framework for teaching and learning that articulates learning as tied to opportunities for active engagement with content and academic language, this study reports on the collaborative development of lesson study groups focused on shifting pedagogical practice at a Hispanic Serving University with a student body greater than 50% made up of minority and often bilingual students.

This paper examines the first year of a lesson study project and focuses on the individual and institutional affordances and constraints that affected the process of the lesson study cycle as well as the results of two cycles of lesson study from the perspectives of lesson study team members, affiliated engineering and physics faculty, and importantly, student learners.

Questions addressed include:

1) How are organizational routines for lesson study accomplished in university STEM contexts?

2) To what extent can lesson study activity establish a routine focus on pedagogical practice and student learning?

3) In what ways can one establish students’ perceptions of learning goals and their connection to pedagogical activities in large lecture contexts, such as university STEM courses?

Data are drawn from two lesson study groups, and two cycles of lesson study delivered in two sections of a gateway engineering course (with 225 students) and one section of a gateway physics course (with 100 students).

Data analyses focus on the development and reflection of adapted lessons within each lesson study group, audio and video recording of delivered lesson study lessons, pre- and post questionnaires of students in both lesson study and non- lesson study sections of the course (n-498), and interviews with students immediately following each lesson study cycle (n=40).

Results focus on the effect of student voice on faculty perceptions of what constitutes good teaching, the iterative effect of two lesson study cycles on planned shifts at the level of lesson deliver, syllabus development, and articulation of connections between lecture and recitation sections.

Through a comparison of the two lesson study groups, results further examine the effect of group makeup on the effectiveness and sustainability of continuing lesson study.

Based on the preliminary findings we outline a strategy for sustainable lesson study practice that may have the broadest impact on student learning.

Innovative uses of Lesson Study
STEM Education, Student feedback, University education

Same critical aspects regardless of age – indicating lack of experiences of algebraic expressions

Paper44Inger Eriksson, Sanna Wettergren, Stockholm University, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, Sweden; Anna-Karin Nordin, Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Sweden

Rome '96Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The issue for this paper is to discuss what can explain that students in different grades seem to experience a phenomenon in more or less the same way and thus, need to discern the same critical aspects in teaching. Data comes from a three-year-long learning study project conducted in four different Swedish schools, in Grade 1, 4, 7 and 10 (first year of upper secondary school) respectively. In the research project we used phenomenography as a theoretical framework searching for critical aspects. The results indicates that regardless of earlier schooling the students experienced the phenomenon of algebraic expressions in a similar way and thus same critical aspects were identified as needed to discern for the students in the four grades. The discussion will focus on these findings in relation to what possible experiences student may have of discerning aspects of algebraic expressions in relation to the content of mathematical education.

Summary

The issue for this paper is to discuss what can explain that students in different grades seem to experience a phenomenon in more or less the same way and thus, need to discern the same critical aspects in teaching. Data comes from a three-year-long learning study project conducted in four different Swedish schools, in Grade 1, 4, 7 and 10 (first year of upper secondary school) respectively.

Understanding what students yet need to learn in relation to a specific content is of importance if to organize a teaching situation where students can work in a zone of proximal development (Vygotsky,1986). Within the theory of variation the concept of critical aspects is regarded as bearing such information for teachers to use when designing teaching (Marton, 2005; Runesson, 2013).

In the research project we used phenomenography as a theoretical framework in search for critical aspects. Phenomenography is a research approach aiming to understand qualitatively different ways of experiencing a phenomenon. A basic assumption is that we, on the basis of what we have experienced in life, what situations and problems we encountered, experience a phenomenon in a specific way (Marton, 1981; Eriksson, 1999). But the ways we experience a phenomenon do not vary very much. This is believed to be because the contexts and activities do not vary at all. A penomenograpical analysis tend to result in a limited but qualitatively different way of experiencing a phenomenon (Eriksson, 1999). Critical aspects can be identified when comparing different ways of experiencing a phenomenon.

The research question addressed in this paper is what possible explanations can be found that students in different grades seem to experience a phenomenon in more or less the same way and thus, need to discern the same critical aspects in teaching.

In order to identify critical aspects groups of students from each grade were interviewed when presented algebraic expressions and some possible answers. The interviews were transcribed and phenomenographically analyzed.

The results indicates that regardless of earlier schooling the students experienced the phenomenon of algebraic expressions in a similar way and thus same critical aspects were identified as needed to discern for the students in the four grades. Based on the analysis three different critical aspects were identified. Students from Grade 1 and 5 were interviewed during the first project year and the students from Grade 7 and 10 the second project year. The analysis from the first project year resulted in critical aspects common for both Grade 1 and 5 and that was not so surprising since we knew that these student had not yet experienced algebraic expressions. However almost the same critical aspects were identified in the analysis of the interviewed students in Grade 7 and 10 during second project year. This was more of a surprise since the students had met algebraic expressions in school.

The discussion will focus on these findings in relation to what possible experiences student may have of discerning aspects of algebraic expressions in relation to the content of mathematical education.

Learning Studies
Algebraic expressions, Critical aspects Phenomenography

How does modeling in biology class contribute to acquiring biological concepts and processes?

Paper200Gulzhan Nussipzhanova, Aigul Balgalieva, Assel Battalova, Nazarbayev Intellectual School Aktau, Biology, Kazakhstan

Skylounge 235Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Very little research exists on effects of model-based learning since models allow obtaining holistic information about biological objects and processes. To compare rates of newer advanced approaches to older, traditional among 8 grade learners, a total of five classes were studied – 4 of them are Kazakh-medium and 1 grade – Russian-medium and the focus group consisted of 2 experienced and 2 novice teachers.

The findings of this study deduce that previous approaches used were inactive and ineffective; such tasks did not sufficiently help students to acquire the ideas and concepts of biological objects and processes. It is planned to create more dynamic models on which one can better see the biological processes. A lot of advantages are given by modeling: gives an opportunity to cooperate while creating models (paper, plasticine, wire, threads), effectively develops students figurative thinking, creative abilities, knowledge, skills obtained as a result of own cognitive work.

Summary

Purpose, relevance of the topic

The purpose of the research was to study how modeling using various materials (paper, plasticine, wire, threads, beads, etc.) at biology lessons can contribute to acquiring knowledge about biological objects and processes, since models allow obtaining holistic information about biological structures and phenomena.

The relevance of the study is that modeling can take a worthy place among modern teaching methods, as it allows a teacher to organize individual, group educational activities, provides learners better understanding of the topic, helps to determine their acquisition degree, enhances students cognitive abilities, promotes quality knowledge, forms positive motivation among students towards biology, inspires teachers to search for new ideas, stimulates professional growth.

Methodology

The focus group consisted of 4 teachers, 2 of whom are teachers with over 10 years of experience and 2 teachers with experience counting no more than 2 years. For this, the stages of conducting a lesson study were formulated: developing and conducting a number of lessons using modeling, followed by analysis of the lessons; conducting a survey among students and interviewing teachers to determine the advantages, disadvantages, barriers to using modeling techniques.

For this Lesson Study there were selected five 8 classes – 4 of them are Kazakh-medium and 1 grade is Russian-medium. The topic was determined after a discussion, which revealed common problems of students: a lack of understanding of the complex internal structure of biological objects and inability to link their structure and functions, underdeveloped skills in interpersonal communication. Therefore, the main goal of this LS was to create models in pair and group work to develop cognitive skills through an active communication environment. The models abiding by the size ratio of objects parts were created in the process of students independent activity, in which a greater number of sense organs got involved, provided an opportunity to study the given objects, processes in detail.

Results and analysis

Collaborative lesson planning proves its effectiveness, because during the LS there occurs an exchange of ideas, mutual learning, also it allows to justify the use of methods and techniques for teaching students, helps to improve teaching. This process has helped to see the need to support students and select such models, the creation of which allows involving all students in the learning process. In the course of collaboration, we managed to systematize models to be created using various materials during lessons.

Conclusion

There have been identified several issues that require improving teaching practice:

Earlier, the static approaches were used – ineffective and inactive. Such tasks did not sufficiently help students to acquire ideas and concepts of biological objects and processes. In the future, it is planned to create dynamic models on which one can better see biological processes.

A lot of advantages are given by modelling: it increases students motivation to study, gives an opportunity to cooperate while creating models (paper, plasticine, wire, threads, beads), develops personal and social skills, figurative thinking, creative abilities, practical skills are obtained as a result of their own cognitive work.

Innovative uses of Lesson Study
Biology lessons, Model-based learnin, Visibility

CANCELLED: How to develop language skills forming active communicative environment at biology lessons?

Paper209Assel Battalova, Assem Ondassynova, Kural Karazhanova, Nazarbayev Intellectual School Aktau, Biology, Kazakhstan

Skylounge 235Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The topic was determined after a joint SWOT analysis, which revealed common problems of 8 grade learners: insufficient skills to draw conclusions, an underdeveloped ability to use terms, low level of academic language, as well as weak skills in interpersonal communication. The major goal of the Lesson Study appeared to develop students’ language skills through an active communicative environment. Several methods were chosen taking into account the Spiral Learning - there has been organized group work to engage students into active dialogue, to define hypotheses, analyze opinions, identify correct solutions to problem-based tasks, developing students’ skills of high order thinking.

When performing collaborative tasks the learners have demonstrated a high level of independence and impressive research skills: they distinguished, selected the key features, they established a connection between the features of the structure and the lifestyle of the arthropods, contrasted, opposed each other’s ideas, formulated general conclusions.

Summary

Purpose, relevance of the topic

Together with colleagues from other subjects, Grade 8 was selected for conducting a Lesson Study. The topic was determined after a joint SWOT analysis, which revealed common problems of learners in the class: insufficient skills to draw conclusions, an underdeveloped ability to use terms, low level of academic language, as well as weak skills in interpersonal communication. Therefore, the main goal of the Lesson Study was to develop students’ language skills through an active communicative environment. When studying this section “Diversity of living organisms”, there should be applied the tasks of developing students’ skills of high order thinking — analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Thereby, the Spiral Learning (based on the premise that a student learns more about a subject each time the topic is reviewed or encountered) is carried out, when there have been established connections and logical transitions from simplified concepts to complex ones, material and knowledge are consolidated to achieve learning objectives.

Methodology

Considering with colleagues a variety of techniques, several methods were chosen that would promote the development of language skills in an active communicative environment - in pairs there has been formulated an action plan, aiming to develop research skills and use thoroughly biological terms.

During the lessons there has been organized group work to engage students into active dialogues, they defined hypotheses, analyzed opinions, identified correct solutions to problem-based tasks.

When performing collaborative tasks the learners have demonstrated a high level of independence and impressive research skills: they distinguished, selected the key features, they established connections between features of the structure and the lifestyle of the arthropods, contrasted, opposed each other’s ideas, formulated general conclusions.

Results and analysis

Previously used tasks which were aimed at enhancing low order thinking skills — knowledge and understanding —such as multiple choice of answers, matching notions and definitions, arrangement in an order — did not sufficiently develop students’ written and oral language skills. It is better to employ tasks developing high-order thinking — application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation — to expand vocabulary, develop the academic language, acquire terms, formulate arguments. The tasks allow students to create a collaborative environment and develop students’ ability to articulate thoughts clearly.

Conclusion

Thus, assessment tools, criteria and tasks developed collaboratively with colleagues, have appeared to be effective in the majority of lessons.

When analyzing the lesson study, the areas that need to be developed further have been determined:

developing subject-academic vocabulary through working with textual information, for example, select texts accordingly to the age of students, break texts into parts and include pictures, charts, diagrams, as they should be aimed only at developing language skills;

compiling CLIL tasks aiming at development of more able students’ research skills in order to engage them into the learning process;

including problem-based tasks that enhance critical thinking skills accordingly to individual abilities of students;

implementing interdisciplinary links with chemistry, physics, mathematics, and geography so learners are able to synthesize information and form a holistic view of the world.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Active communicative environment, CLIL, high-order thinking skills, Problem-based tasks

Developing learners' research abilities through the principles of differentiated learning

Paper351Damir Yerkmaliyev, Nurbibi Dossakhanova, Assel Battalova, Nazarbayev Intellectual School, Physics, Kazakhstan

Skylounge 235Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

The research work focuses on understanding of theoretical knowledge gained by students through practical work. The study is based on the principles of differentiated learning, as the main goal is to study learners’ perception and research skills, their ability to formulate hypotheses, creating new ideas, finding correct decisions and proofs.

The purpose of this LS is the organization of research and creative activity when solving new problems students face. This method enables biology, chemistry and physics teachers to help 10, 11 and 12 grade students to conduct research work, by this apply and consolidate new material. The nature of the tasks in the research method can be different: class laboratory work and practical work at home; the solutions of the analytical tasks; assignments needed to be performed in the shortest and certain periods (week, month); individual and group tasks, etc. The instructions for laboratory work are given in the textbooks.

Summary

Purpose, relevance of the topic

The research work focuses on understanding of theoretical knowledge gained by students through practical work. The study is based on the principles of differentiated learning, as the main goal is to study learners’ perception and research skills, their ability to formulate hypotheses, creating new ideas, finding correct decisions and proofs.

Methodology

The purpose of this LS is the organization of research and creative activity when solving new problems students face. With the help of the research method, knowledge is mastered at the creative level. This method enables 10, 11 and 12 grade students to apply existing knowledge in solving problems and acquire new knowledge based on solving the problems. The nature of the tasks in the research method can be different: class laboratory work and practical work at home; the solutions of the analytical tasks; assignments needed to be performed in the shortest and certain periods (week, month); individual and group tasks, etc. The instructions for laboratory work are given in the textbooks. Biology, chemistry and physics teachers decided to focus laboratory works mainly focused on the research goals.

Results and analysis

In order to improve the research abilities of students in biology, chemistry and physics it is supposed to link the theoretical knowledge with research activity using the method of differentiated learning. The level of perception of learners' knowledge is different. During the entrance test of theoretical and practical directions, most students performed well, low research skills were revealed when performing problem-based tasks. In order to improve those skills, firstly, to separate them according to the ability of acquiring knowledge, secondly, to give problem-based tasks on the topic, students have to justify their answers in groups. Third, high-level students are given only the theme and purpose of the study, and middle-level students are given the action plan of work, they have to identify errors and shortcomings made during the course of the experiment, find correct formulas and calculations on their own. For less able students formulas for calculating the progress of research work, difficulties when experimenting and ways of solutions are provided. Students independently determine the stages of the study (action plan) and necessary equipment: the ability to observe and study facts and phenomena; the ability to identify incomprehensible phenomenon and issues; forecasting; drawing up a research plan; implementing a plan to determine relationships between phenomena; formulation and interpretation of solutions; verification of the solutions; draw up practical conclusions about possibilities of applying the knowledge.

Conclusion

It is vital to define the direction of research-providing methods, the development of creative activity and scientific knowledge of students and the successful provision of creativity. The teacher together with the students poses a problem-based task, do not provide the whole process of experiments to the students, they have to gain knowledge by studying and solving the problem on their own. Teacher’s role is operational management in solving the problem. The learning process is characterized by high intensity, accompanied by great interest, different depth of knowledge, strengthening abilities.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
biology, chemistry, differentiated tasks, physics, Problem-based tasks, Research skills, Science experiments

Effectiveness of Lesson Study in primary and secondary education in Flanders: a case study

Paper26Kathleen Bodvin, University of Antwerp, Belgium

Straatsburg '88Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Within the TALENT-research project a lesson study (LS) approach was developed and implemented in order to optimize learning environments for high ability students in Flemish education. In addition to the application of LS, research on the experiences of teachers engaged in LS took place. A central research question was: in which way is LS effective for primary and secondary teachers in Flanders? In school year 2018-2019, six teams participated in a longitudinal case study. Teachers’ experiences were investigated using questionnaires, conversations with a facilitator, and focus groups. Preliminary results indicate that teachers generally experienced LS as an effective method for their professional development and as an effective tool for intervention development in classrooms. Some teachers felt insecure when implementing LS and different help seeking behavior was notified such as the need for confirmation by the external facilitator. Implications for further development and implementation of LS in Flanders will be formulated.

Summary

Within the research project TALENT a lesson study (LS) approach was developed and implemented by Dra. Katelijne Barbier, Dr. Kathleen Bodvin, Prof. Dr. Vincent Donche, and Prof. Dr. Elke Struyf, in order to optimize learning environments for high ability students in Flemish education. Central in the development phase was the writing of a manual for first use of LS in Flanders which was guided by literature research. Especially the literature of LS in England and the Netherlands was inspiring (De Vries, Verhoef, Lin Goei, 2016; Dudley, 2014). Also, an international expert panel of experienced researchers with LS was organized.

To start-up the process, several introductory workshops were organized for the six participating schools. During one school year (2018-2019), six teams of teachers (N=15) used our preliminary manual and attended workshops on facets of LS (e.g., interviewing and observing case students), to conduct three Lesson Studies. Three teams were formed by teachers in primary education, who educated students aged 10-12 years, and three teams were formed by teachers in secondary education, who educated students aged 12-14 years. In order to investigate the experiences and effects of participation in LS study on teacher level, a longitudinal case study took place. The central research question was: in which way is LS effective for primary and secondary teachers in Flanders?

After each LS, teams filled in a questionnaire to evaluate the implementation of the LS and to share how they had experienced this implementation. After the first and the second LS a follow-up conversation with a facilitator was planned, in order to co-optimize various aspects of the LS trajectory. For example, the team and the facilitator could brainstorm about triggering students to talk more actively during the post research lesson interview. The teachers also engaged in two focus groups to discuss their experiences with the implementation of LS. The teachers were explicitly asked to comment on the prescribed method of LS through their experiences with implementation at any time. The teachers’ experiences led to several suggestions for improvement of the implementation of LS in Flemish education.

Preliminary results indicate that teachers experienced the prescribed form of LS as a useful method for their professional development. Teachers described that scheduling time to collaborate and co-create with a focus on case students led to new insights. Not only did they learn about educating the case students, but also, more generally, their way of educating altered as a consequence of the LS. Teachers described the LS as very intensive and time consuming in the first LS, while this changed for the better as they had more experience with conducting a LS. They also described their need to consult with a facilitator when conducting the LS. Some teachers felt insecure when implementing this method and expressed a need for confirmation concerning their LS practices.

To conclude, by taking into account the experiences of teachers implementing a LS we searched for a way to make LS an effective teacher development method for creating knowledge in teaching practice in Flanders.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Flanders, Implementation, Teachers’ experiences

Lehrkunst – a lesson study approach from germany and switzerland?

Paper266Tilman Grammes, Universität Hamburg, Faculty of Education, Germany

Straatsburg '88Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Lehrkunst, translated as art of teaching by staging lessons, is a basic didactical approach which has been developed in theory and practice in Germany and Switzerland during the last three decades. An recent overview about relevant didactical concepts in Germany lists the concept among the very few innovation in general didactics.

Summary

Lehrkunst, translated as art of teaching by staging lessons, is a basic didactical approach which has been developed in theory and practice in Germany and Switzerland during the last three decades. An recent overview about relevant didactical concepts in Germany lists the concept among the very few innovation in general didactics.

The approach has proven relevance for educational practice as it enables schools to improve their curriculum with relevant general knowledge. The free and institutionally supported cooperation among colleagues and non-school advisors in so called Lehrkunstwerkstätten (workshops), a kind of microteaching, has proved successful in setting up a collection of exemplary staging lessons. In doing so, it does not claim to cover all the topics and areas of instruction – it considers itself as a "ten per cent didactics".

Lehrkunst didactics means teaching mainly in the form of staging lessons (Lehrstück). Staging lessons are well composed medium length teaching units that are repeatedly tested, always varied and constantly developed. They treat “decisive moments in history” (Sternstunden der Menschheit, Stefan Zweig) or cross-epochal human issues, which contribute to general knowledge. In staging lessons pupils are asked to reenact the ways on which scientist or headliners of culture have won new insights at their time and made pioneering discoveries. Lehrkunst didactics concentrate on condencing learning processes in school into educational processes, and the aesthetic dimension of staging lessons is also central.

The theoretical framework of Lehrkunst follows a historical tradition starting with Comenius' "Didactica Magna" and leading via Diesterweg, Willmann, Reichwein and Wolfgang Klafki to the founders of Lehrkunst, Martin Wagenschein and Hans Christoph Berg.

Research question is how the focus on cultural and curricularly important "key topics" (exemplary principle), on the original sources (genetic principle) can transform into a lively, coherent learning task (dramaturgical principle) motivating today's young people to participate in the process of gaining knowledge and competence.

Core method of professional development in the approach is the establishment of a Lehrkunstwerkstatt (staging lessons teacher workshop). It can be either school-based or subject-based between cooperating schools. Not primarily collegial observation of lessons, teachers meet in the afternoon, and teach each other about exemplary questions.

In the presentation, a case study from a school which developed their curriculum over several years by using the concept of Lehrkunst will allow to put questions and discuss the concept in practice.

As a result, the presentation reveals significiant parallels and some differences between lesson study and Lehrkunst and thus can explore the potential of a joint venture in the field of subject matter didactics. As lesson study still is not very well known in Germany and Switzerland, this will be a chance for future dissemination of lesson study.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
General education, Lehrkunst (art of teaching, Lehrkunstwerkstatt (collegial teacher workshop, staging lessons)

Thoughts on teaching: working alone and in teams in Germany and Japan

Paper48Britta Klopsch, Heidelberg University, Germany

Straatsburg '88Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

An effective professional practice of a teacher cannot only depend on his or her individual knowledge and skills. Teachers need to work collaboratively in teams to develop themselves and their teaching and to be able to make sound decisions. This research investigates on how these three elements (human capital, social capital and decisional capital), also known as ‘Professional Capital’ (Hargreaves & Fullan 2012), are pronounced amongst teachers in Germany and Japan. First findings from the international study are presented here, concerning how teachers work together, how they prepare their teaching and what their attitude towards teamwork is.

Summary

Strong educational systems need strong teachers. To get and maintain a strong teaching force teachers need to work collaboratively in teams (Chichibu & Kihara 2013), as “their power [can be] multiplied to the fullest extent when working together” (Ermeling & Graff-Ermeling 2013, 186). Precondition however is to have a great amount of knowledge and skills individually and to be able to come to a sound decision.

This combination of individual and collective approaches to teaching in combination with the question of how decisions for teaching are made is what Hargreaves and Fullan (2012) name the professional capital. It brings together and defines critical elements of what it takes to create high quality and high performance in all professional practice (Hargreaves & Fullan 2012, 102). The three strands are here human capital (i.e. what you know and can do individually), social capital (i.e. with whom you know it and can do it collectively) and decisional capital (i.e. how you judge: how long you have known it and done it and deliberately gotten better at doing it).

Much research deals with individual professional competence and how to enhance it (see for example Baumert & Kunter, 2013; Schleicher 2018; Day & Gu 2010). Collaborative working has been studied widely, too (see for example: Klopsch 2016, DuFour et al. 2010; Huber et al. 2012; Pröbstel/Soltau 2012). And there is sound evidence on how effective it can be for student learning (Leana 2011; DuFour et al. 2010; Kruse/Seashore-Louis, 2009) and teachers’ self-efficacy and well-being (OECD 2014; Schleicher 2018).

Research could even show that teachers with a low human capital in a school with strong social capital could do better than teachers in a school with low social capital (Leana 2011). Social capital is therefore very influential as a lead strategy. An idea that is deepened through Lesson Study as well as the use and increase of decisional capital. It is strongly linked with human capital, as teachers need to respond to many different student’s needs at the same time when teaching. Social capital can support these decisions in combination with reflection on and for action (Tan 2017) as we can see through Lesson Study Cycles (Lewis & Hurd 2011, Dudley 2013). As important as that interplay of all three components of professional capital might be, there is so far no international study on it, comparing a country with a long tradition of Lesson Study, which can be seen as working directly on all the parts, and a country with no tradition on working together systematically. This research project aims to close the gap with studying Japanese and German teachers’ perceptions in order to gain knowledge of how professional capital can develop. Our presentation shows first results drawn on a quantitative questionnaire, filled in by around 1000 teachers in each country. We present first findings on how teachers work together, how they prepare their teaching and what their attitude towards teamwork is.

Research methodology and theoretical underpinnings of Lesson Study
Human capital, Professional capital,

What conditions for sustainable Lesson Study. A leadership perspective

Symposium201Sandrine Breithaupt, University of Teacher Education Vaud, Switzerland

Tokio '95Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Since schools have become a pivot of the change required by educational policies, the question of the leadership of the leaders has been raised in terms of management, work organization, and leadership for learning. In this context, collective continuing education can be seen as a lever for professional development, improving teaching practices and pupil’s learning. The objective of the symposium is to question the conditions for the implementation of sustainable Lesson Study from a leadership perspective. Three presentations, from France, Norway and Switzerland, identify the factors contributing to the success of Lesson Study in some European schools.

Summary

Although secular, the notion of leadership in education is still polymorphic. It brings together several realities that are woven or juxtaposed. After Pelletier (2018), three major phases of the development of the leadership can be conceived. First, the leadership as a personal attribute, second the leadership as a shared process and lasted, the leadership as a component of a new governance of an education system. Historically, different theories have mainly approached the leadership from the perspective of a personal attribute, or in terms of leader’s role (Hallinger, 2005). Parallel to the movements for educational policy reform some authors have focused on other theories, models or more generally on other leadership perspectives, as well as transformational leadership (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2000). The period from 1985 to 2015 allows us to distinguish the concentrated leadership which “refers to an influence exerted in a unidirectional way, which comes from a single actor, the leader, and which is directed towards the followers” (Brassard & Lapointe, 2018, p. 22), and the distributed leadership which refers to a mutual influence emerging from the interaction of the actors concerned in the organization.

The literature on leadership leads to the same results, namely that the influence of principals on teaching-learning is often indirect - they are no longer physically in the classroom (Gather Thurler, Pelletier, & Dutercq, 2015; Leithwood, Harris, & Hopkins, 2008). School success would thus not only be linked to the way in which school principals or headteachers or leaders manage to influence teaching teams, but also to the way in which they manage to profit from professional capital (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012) and put it at the service of a shared common good. While the effect of leadership on student outcomes is raising new expectations, Progin, Etienne & Pelletier (2019) underline the difficulty of measuring it. In this context, this symposium seeks to question the leadership for learning (Hallinger, 2011) and general support of teacher training institutes to maintain sustainable lesson study. We are interested in the forms that it can take and the conditions that promote it. Knowing then that university resources are not scalable and often expensive, we want to explore how school leadership (coming from headteachers or facilitators) could be a facilitator or an obstacle to a sustainable implementation of lesson study in schools. What are the roles of the different actors throughout the process? Three presentations will allow us to enrich our reflection. Laurent Helius, Inspector, will describe a first experience (currently in progress) of implementing a lesson study in France. Elaine Munthe will illustrate what the collaboration between two Principals that have used Lesson Study to promote professional learning for merely years have learned in Norway. Sandrine Breithaupt and Laetitia Progin in Switzerland question the difficulties they encounter as facilitators in collaborating with school principals when implementing lesson studies which are not perceived as a professional development process. The discussant will be Helen Lewis from Swansea University School of Education and chairs Sandrine Breithaupt and Gabriel Kappeler (Switzerland).

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

The creation of a Lesson Study group on a French territory in 2018-2019.

This presentation will mainly focus on a Lesson Study group that was created in a rural area in France six months ago. The global context of teachers’ training in France, combined with recent developments in the sphere of French education, will provide us with a general understanding of where it all started for these sixteen English and Spanish teachers from seven different secondary schools. The various steps of the project will be described and analyzed. We will also see the extent to which the adaptation of the Lesson Study method to the French context was influenced by its implementation by the innovation department of the regional educational authorities. A few other examples of French Lesson Study experiments, this time in primary education, will be shortly described afterwards. Last, our presentation will explain the perspectives that are being discussed to prolong and expand the Lesson Study procedure at a larger, regional scale.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

How schools have changed and what lies ahead for continued improvement?

This paper is a collaboration between two Principals from two schools that have used Lesson Study to promote professional learning for five years and nearly 10 years. The University of Stavanger has played a partner role through the years that lesson Study has been used.

We will illustrate, how this work has influenced our schools, and the role of school leaders in it. Based on analyses of teachers’ discussions, we have drawn out areas that teachers have perceived as having been improved during the past years, but also areas that they see as challenging still.

Changes that have occurred and which we will present in more detail are:

Instructional changes

Collaboration changes

Observational skills

An infrastructure for school development that suits any topic

Areas for continued work that teachers perceive as still being challenging are:

Observation

Constructing hypotheses about students

Using theories to discuss

Assessing time needed

Reflection based on sustained trials

As school leaders, we are keen on finding ways to work that enable us to support teacher learning as well as student learning. We are interested in sharing our experiences and discussing sustainable ways for school improvement.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

How to introduce sustainable lesson study in schools? What difficulties ?

In the state of Vaud, Switzerland, schools have become a key actor in the regulation of the education system and is now assigned many responsibilities. Education systems increasingly expect directors to influence teaching-learning in their schools in order to contribute to student success and the development of the quality of the system as a whole. For several years, the education system is changing on many points. We are introducing new teaching methods, we are adding digital and the Ministry of Education wishes to develop a more inclusive school.

In this case, lesson study can be a good way to change the school culture. Despite our willingness to introduce the lesson study as a learning management tool with the directors, we have failed. Research is about understanding why. An exploratory research leads us to believe that lesson study is perceived as in-service education on an equal footing with others and not as a professional development process. To know more about it, we analyze comprehensive interviews with school officials. The work is ongoing but the first results show that it is the middle managers (deans) who seem to be carrying leadership for learning and would be most likely to encourage change.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

and policy aspects of sustainable Lesson Study, Leadership, management
Leadership for learning, Sustainable lesson study

Lesson Study and problem solving approach: a comparison of Japanese, Australian and US contexts

Symposium58Valérie Batteau, Joetsu University of Education, Mathematics Education, Japan; Thomas Mcdougal, Lesson Study Alliance, United States of America; Wanty Widjaja, Deakin University, Australia

Wenen '95Tue 13:00 - 14:30

Abstract

Japanese mathematics teaching, particularly in primary schools, is influenced by the practice of Lesson Study. This practice is developed within a problem-solving teaching approach that promotes mathematical thinking, creativity of students and, students’ interests in mathematics.

This symposium presents the specificities of the Japanese mathematics teaching using a problem-solving approach. We focus on the teachers’ practices promoted in this context and interrogate some adaptations of Japanese Lesson Study (JLS) and a problem-solving approach in other countries: Australia and the US. Lesson Study in Australia and in the US use Japanese textbooks or resources, translated in English, with a problem-solving approach. The following questions will be discussed:

How does JLS with teaching approach by problem solving transfer? What are the promoted practices in these adaptations of JLS?

The methodology used is a qualitative study using a case study of Lesson Study implementations in the contexts of Japan, Australia and, the US.

Summary

This symposium clusters three researches: the first one is about the Japanese Lesson Study with a point of view on promoted practices in Japanese context presented by Valérie Batteau, the two other researches focus on adaptations of Japanese Lesson Study with Japanese textbooks or resources in US context presented by Tom McDougal and in Australian context presented by Wanty Widjaja. The discussant of this symposium, Stéphane Clivaz, is also interested in the comparison of teacher’s practices developed in Japanese Lesson Study and Lesson Study in Switzerland.

Japanese mathematics teaching in primary school is influenced by the practice of Lesson Study. This practice of Lesson Study in mathematics is developed with a problem-solving approach and the importance to mathematical thinking (Baba, Ueda, Ninomiya & Hino, 2018; Batteau & Miyakawa, submitted ; Fujii, 2018). This joint development influences mathematics textbook, Course of Study and, teachers’ practices. Some Japanese researchers claim that problem solving approach is a consequence of Japanese Lesson Study (Isoda, 2012; Isoda & Nakamura, 2010; Isoda, Stephens, Ohara & Miyakawa, 2007) and one can’t succeed without the other (Fujii, 2018). This symposium will discuss the teachers’ practices promoted by the couple Lesson Study and problem-solving approach in the context of Japan and the impacts of the couple Lesson Study and Japanese textbooks in US and Australian contexts.

The research in the US context highlights that the use of Japanese textbook and the intensity with which teachers study the Japanese text during kyozaikenkyuu has a direct impact on the quality of the lessons, and teachers’ growth in understanding of content and pedagogy.

In the Australian context, the presentation focuses on implementing structured problem-solving mathematics lessons through lesson study. This research explores the influence of diversity of teachers’ experience and knowledge in cross-school planning team on the level of discussion and reflection during lesson study process. Cultural differences in mathematics teaching is highlighted: in Japan, the collective dimension is an important value in teaching, with whole-class teaching, contrary, in Australia, the teaching culture emphasizes on small-group. This research shows this cultural difference as a constraint to a high-fidelity implementation of Japanese Lesson Study.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Japanese mathematic teaching is influenced by specificities: the practice of Lesson Study, a problem-solving approach and, the importance of mathematical thinking. The problem solving approach promotes the mathematical thinking, the creativity of students’ activity and, the students’ interests.

This study questions how do these specificities translate in ordinary teacher’s practices?

The theoretical framework is a double didactical and ergonomical approach in order to analyse teachers’ practices related to students’ activities (cognitive and mediative components of practices) and in taking into account professional aspects (personal, institutional and, social components). The research question is how do these specificities translate into these five components of teacher’s practices?

For this qualitative research, we collected data for two primary school teachers: written data (chalkboard, lesson plan, reports, textbooks, guide) and videos of research lessons of JLS school-based and at prefectural level.

These specificities translate into teacher’s practices: the choice of tasks (cognitive component), the structure of lessons (cognitive and mediative components), interactions teacher-students (mediative component), the representation of mathematics teaching (personal component) and, the participation of JLS that implies reflexivity on their own practices (social and institutional components).

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

In Chicago, most of the lesson study work that we have supported has tried to incorporate the Japanese approach of teaching mathematics through problem solving. Because the Japanese mathematics textbooks are designed to support this type of teaching, we have been encouraging teams working in mathematics to consult, during their kyouzai kenkyuu, translations of the elementary mathematics textbook series from Tokyo Shoseki. Some teams have designed their lessons to use tasks from the Japanese text; some have consulted the Japanese text but chosen tasks from other texts; some have ignored the text entirely. We have observed that the quality of the lessons, and teachers’ growth in understanding of content and pedagogy, is typically directly proportional to the intensity with which they study the Japanese text. And, most schools that have continued with Lesson Study for more than two years have ultimately begun using the Japanese texts as their primary curriculum. We plan to discuss why the Japanese texts may be so valuable for supporting Lesson Study.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Lesson Study, which originated in Japan, is viewed around the world as an effective platform for teacher collaboration and professional learning. However, relatively little is understood about the theoretical underpinning of teachers’ collaboration and their professional learning. This presentation draws on data from a small-scale research project, ‘Implementing structured problem-solving mathematics lessons through lesson study’, carried out in three Australian schools. This presentation explores to what extent the diversity of the different teachers’ experience and knowledge in a cross-school planning team, including the observers and outside experts, contribute to deep levels of discussion and reflection in the context of Lesson Study. Finding suitable tasks to match the Australian curriculum proved to be a challenge. The teaching culture in Australia emphasizes on small-group rather than whole-class teaching also presented a constraint to a high-fidelity implementation of Japanese Lesson Study. The cross-school structure of the teams was found to be effective in allowing the diversity of the planning team and minimizing the impact of power relations.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Japanese Lesson Study, Problem solving, Teaching approach

14:35 - 16:05 Concurrent session 2

Emerging Lesson Study research within the WALS community - a PhD showcase symposium

Featured symposium408Shirley Tan, Nagoya University, Japan; Sandrine Breithaupt, University of Teacher Education Vaud, Switzerland; Nicolette van Halem, VU Amsterdam, Netherlands; Bridget Flanagan, Mary Immaculate College Limerick, Ireland; Tijmen Schipper, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands

Amsterdam '72Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The aim of this special PhD showcase symposium is to highlight emerging Lesson Study (LS) research from PhD’s and young researchers in the WALS community. Five short presentations will showcase PhD and young researchers’ research that takes place in various cultural contexts. This symposium covers a broad array of research topics situated in Japan, Switzerland, Ireland, the UK and the Netherlands. The first presentation focuses on Japanese board writing, bansho, as an important feature of Japanese LS. The second presentation examines how and what a LS team learns during LS in Swiss Geography education. The third presentation determines the impact of LS on the quality of teacher learning in the UK. The fourth presentation examines the implementation of LS in STEM early years education in Ireland. The final presentation examines LS in relation to adaptive teaching, self-efficacy and the school context in Dutch secondary education 

General summary
This unique PhD showcase symposium is organized as a means to highlight Lesson Study (LS) research from PhD students and young researchers in the WALS community and aimto strengthen and expand the important work of emerging researchers. Despite the differences between the studies in terms of focus and cultural as well as educational contexts in which the research is situated, the commonality in this symposium is that the studies have been conducted and will be presented by PhD students and young researchers. This symposium may encourage potential PhD students to explore possibilities to examine LS practices in a PhD trajectory and it may strengthen the work and network of current PhD students within the WALS community. But not only is this symposium of interest for (future) PhD students and young researchers, this symposium particularly aims to present a ‘fresh’, creative and dynamic approach to LS research from which experienced LS researchers and practitioners, and thus the WALS community in general, may benefit. 

The first presentation on bansho analysis will be presented by Shirley Tan from Nagoya University, Japan, and it is the continuation and refinement from the previous study presented at last year’s WALS conference. The current study aims to investigate the bansho styles of teachers; whether the same teacher has the same bansho style across school subjects. The findings that provide visualisation of bansho-related data could serve as a key aspect during observation and reflection stage of LS. The second presentation by Sandrine Breithaupt from Lausanne, Switzerland, aims to discover how and what a LS team learns during a LS in Geography education using discourse analysis. Also, the research suggests how educators could increase their creativity and productivity through collective thinking. The third presentation by Nicolette van Halem (VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) presents a collaborative study situated in the UK, which is recently published in Teaching and Teacher Education. The study is concerned with understanding the impact of LS on the quality of teaching using longitudinal and cross-sectional data from three waves of data collection from 214 teachers engaged in LS during one full academic year. One of the main findings of this study is that participating in LS increases meaning-oriented and application-oriented teacher learning and decreasing problematic learning. The fourth study is presented by Bridget Flanagan from the University of Limerick and is situated in Irish early years primary education, focusing on STEM education. The study reports the impact of LS on teachers’ skills and knowledge, and discusses the obstacles and barriers to effective implementation of LS. The last presentation by Tijmen Schipper from the Windesheim University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands focuses on the influence of LS on teachers’ adaptive teaching competence, self-efficacy and the school context. A brief overview will be presented of the most important findings of four studies as part of this PhD research.  
The symposium will be introduced by PhD student Tijmen Schipper and discussed by the chair of the WALS2019 conference, Dr. Sui Lin Goei (VU University Amsterdam).  
Bansho analysis: one teacher, one bansho style?

Bansho (board writing) is a key feature in lesson study which is increasingly becoming an area of interest among researchers. Hence, this study proposes bansho analysis as a research tool for teachers to evaluate and reflect on their own lessons. This in turn helps teachers to see themselves contributing to their own professional development. In my previous study, a coding scheme has been developed to identify bansho styles in a Japanese school. The results show that there exists a variation of bansho styles across school subjects. This current study intends to explore further, to understand if the variation of bansho style exists when the same teacher teaches different subjects. Data was drawn from a primary school in Japan. All lesson observations were recorded and then analysed. Subsequently, bansho features are represented in bansho choreography and bansho transition diagrams. Data analysis suggests that the same teacher has different bansho styles depending on the school subjects. This could indicate teacher’s beliefs about teaching and the type of knowledge valued in the lesson. Visualisation of bansho-related data from this study could serve as an invaluable resource for teachers during observation and reflection stage of lesson study.  

How and what we learn during Lesson Study?

This research is part of a cultural-historical perspective of development and more broadly of a vision of social brain hypothesis that encourages us to investigate cooperative intellectual activities (Mercer, 2016).  For Littleton and Mercer (2013), language is a powerful cultural tool for collective thinking.  Of course, it serves communication, but above all it contributes to think the world and increase the capacity to think. Having a long history in Japan, lesson study (LS) “was discovered” in the French-speaking world in 2010. The English literature presents LS as a model, a way of thinking professional development, a means of increasing teaching capacities and pupil’s learning. This research aims to better understanding how and what a LS group learn during a LS in Geography education, how we can be creative and productive by thinking collectively. My corpus includes transcripts of the preparation and analysis phases of research lessons conducted in 2015. I analyze content and discourse of interactions between teachers and teacher educators (the facilitators). The preliminary results provide some insights about the role of the facilitators. The results also highlight some tensions related to the evolution of concepts of geography education that should prepare pupils to think about environmental issues. 

The impact of Lesson Study professional development on the quality of teacher learning

This paper aims to increase our understanding of the impact of Lesson Study (LS) on the quality of teacher learning. It draws on longitudinal and cross-sectional data from three waves of data collection from 214 teachers engaged in LS during one full school year. The findings showed positive effects of Lesson Study on meaning-oriented and application-oriented teacher learning and a negative effect on problematic learning. Less experienced teachers showed the highest gain in meaning-oriented learning. The paper contributes to advancement of our theoretical understanding of teacher learning as it provides evidence of mechanisms through which professional development impacts teacher learning. 

The influence of participating in Lesson Study on adaptive teaching competence, teacher self-efficacy, and the school context

As a result of inclusive education policies, contemporary classrooms tend to become increasingly diverse in terms of students’ learning needs, abilities, interests and cultural background (UNESCO, 2017). While teachers are expected to adapt their teaching to these diverse classroom populations (Corno, 2008), this turns out to be complex (Van der Lans, Van de Grift, & Van Veen, 2017) and may relate to their feelings of self-efficacy as well (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2007). Lesson Study (LS) may address this issue due to its explicit focus on student learning (Dudley, 2013). There is evidence that participating in LS improves adaptive teaching practices (Norwich & Ylonen, 2013) and feelings of self-efficacy (Sibbald, 2009). However, this evidence is limited, particularly in the context of Dutch secondary educationTherefore, this PhD research focuses on the influence of LS on teachers’ feelings of self-efficacy and adaptive teaching. As LS takes place in the school context, promoting and hindering conditions and cultural elements are included as well. This PhD research consists of four empirical studies using both qualitative and quasi-experimental mixed-methods designs, including a variety of research instruments. In this presentation a brief overview of these studies and its results is provided

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
EMERGING RESEARCHERS, PHD RESEARCH, WALS COMMUNITY

The role of higher education in helping teachers to craft good Lesson Studies: a case study

Paper213John Elliott, University of East Anglia, Education and Lifelong Learning, United Kingdom

Belgrado '73Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The Lesson Study method has globalised over the past twenty years beyond Japan across policy contexts shaped by international comparisons of measured learning outcomes. In these contexts commentators increasingly point out that the use of 'knowledgeable others' from higher education to facilitate the design and conduct of good lesson research in schools is no longer viewed to be an important aspect of lesson study. Instead its use as an instrument for maximising the performativity of schools, as measured by standardised tests, appears to have transformed it into a collaborative method of teacher professional development aimed at creating and disseminating model lessons. This paper is a case study of the organisational, conceptual, methodological and practical impact of a postgraduate course designed by the presenting author to enable groups of serving teachers in schools to craft lesson studies that develop innovative pedagogical solutions to persistent problems of teaching and learning in classrooms.

Summary

This case study focuses on two design features of a postgraduate module entitled ‘Developing innovative approaches to teaching and learning through lesson study’. These are 1) the design and execution of a school-based and publicly accessible collaborative lesson study; 2) the use of lectures and seminars to challenge underpinning assumptions about its aims and procedures, and appropriate research methods. It aspires to tell an evidence-based story about the organisational, conceptual, methodological and pedagogical impact of the module, using data drawn from interviews with school leaders, participating teachers and students, and the lesson study reports and individual professional learning narratives submitted by course members for the purposes of formative and summative assessment.

The module is designed to challenge the individualistic organisational culture that shapes teaching in classrooms. Teachers are encouraged to participate in school-based groups, who are required to attend a number of lectures and seminars before designing and carrying out a lesson study together in their school. A compromise arrangement allows for the module to accept individual teachers, on condition that they have the support of their school leaders to undertake a school-based lesson study with their professional peers. This case study will compare and contrast evidence about the relative impact on the organisational culture in schools of the two different strategies of lesson study group formation.

As lesson study has globalised beyond Japan it has posed important conceptual issues; namely, “Is it a form of classroom action research?” and “Does it need to be informed by an explicit pedagogical theory?” In both the USA and Europe the lesson study movement and the action research movement have been maintained as conceptually and methodologically distinct strands of teacher research. This postgraduate module invites participating teachers to explore possible conceptual links between ideas that underpin lesson study and Stenhouse’s influential idea of ‘teachers as researchers’, which underpins a major strand of the classroom action research movement. The latter was conceptually fused with both Japanese lesson study and the Swedish pedagogical theory of variation in the context of the curriculum reforms in Hong Kong; thereby stimulating the creation of WALS and its Journal. This case study will cite evidence that the use of a postgraduate course to engage teachers with this synthesis of ideas has significantly shaped their understanding of lesson study as a method of improving teaching and learning, including the view that neither lesson study nor action research needs to be theoretically uninformed.

Space is allocated in the course design for groups to explore the appropriateness of principles and methods of action research that have been developed over the years in the light of Stenhouse’s ideas. Provision is also made for the course organiser to visit each group to give critical feed-back on their lesson study design, and to assist with gathering and negotiating the release of ethically sensitive data. This case study will conclude by exploring the extent to which the research aspects of the module enhance the lesson studies of the teachers as methodologically rigorous.

Research methodology and theoretical underpinnings of Lesson Study
Classroom Action Research, Knowledgeable Other, Theory Informed Lesson Study

Research lesson cycles in initial teacher preparation

Paper283Mark Koester, Tayna Camargo, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Mathematics, United States of America

Belgrado '73Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The aim of this research study is to analyze the learning of five secondary mathematics preservice teachers during two cycles of lesson study. Qualitative methods were used. Audiotapes were made of the lesson study planning sessions and the debriefs of the taught lessons. All data was transcribed and coded. Each preservice teacher wrote reflections of their implemented lessons and wrote a revised lesson plan which were collected and analyzed. The preliminary findings are that the student teachers did revise their lesson plans to include more student anticipations and reported that the lessons were improved. The significance for practice is that these changes are important for increasing student learning. This study is relevant to lesson study in initial teacher preparation. Preservice teachers view these lesson study cycles as an important form of teacher learning that they will continue to participate in as they begin their teaching careers.

Summary

We have used lesson study with our secondary mathematics preservice teachers for more than ten years. The first experience for them is in their methods class where they plan a high-level task lesson and then implement the lesson in a student-centered, university math class. They debrief the lesson and then pairs of students revise the lesson and reteach it in different sections of the same university math class. They debrief again after all the reteaching to discuss whether the changes in the revised lessons mattered. As these preservice teachers continue on to student teaching, the lesson study process continues. They participate in two cycles of lesson study with a team. They meet for a planning session and then the preservice teacher implements the lesson while the rest of the team observes and collects data. There is a debrief after the implementation and the preservice teacher then revises the lesson before submitting it as part of their final preservice teaching work product.

Preparing preservice secondary mathematics teachers is of vital importance. The need for mathematics teachers who teach for understanding and use research-based teaching practices is in high demand and is necessary for improving student performance. Lesson Study provides opportunities for preservice teacher growth through lesson planning, discussion, and collaborative planning. It also focuses on skills and practices needed to be effective mathematics teachers and it helps develop a way of thinking about planning, teaching and their own learning that they can continue to use as they transition into full-time secondary mathematics teachers.

We were guided in our data collection by the following questions. How were the lessons that were planned change between the initial lesson and the revised lesson? What do student teachers learn through the research lesson process?

Qualitative methods were used. We audiotaped the lesson planning meetings and the debriefs after the implemented lesson. First Coding of the transcripts followed (Saldaña, 2009), and then Second Coding enabled us to develop themes and categories. We also collected each preservice teacher’s reflections on the lesson study process and their initial lesson plans and their revised lesson plans. Since we wanted to know what changes occurred between the initial lesson plan and the revised lesson plan, we analyzed them by the constant comparison method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). When changes were noticed between lesson plans, open coding was used (Corbin & Strauss, 2008).

There were substantial changes between the initial lesson plan and the revised lesson plan, particularly around student anticipations. In regard to preservice teacher learning, there was agreement that the lesson study process contributed to increasing their own learning, especially about the importance of lesson planning.

Lesson Study is a powerful form of professional development where teachers are making choices about what they want to learn. In this study, the preservice teachers demonstrated that they were learning. Expanding on the results of the study, we hope that the discussion of lesson study in initial teacher education will be enhanced and that further studies will be done.

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Initial Teacher Preparation

Crafting Lesson Studies in initial teacher training: challenges for academic tutoring

Paper88Noemi Peña, University of Malaga, Spain

Belgrado '73Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research on Lesson Study's potential to reconstruct student teachers' practical knowledge. It specifically focuses on a Lesson Study implemented as part of the subjects Practicum III and Degree Essay, which are imparted in year four of the Degree in Early Chilhood Education at Málaga University. The work involves qualitative research that is developed through two case studies. The results of the research have shown that academic tutoring by university teachers must overcome several key challenges: difficulties in cooperative work, and the contrast between their enthusiasm for developing the proposal and their difficulty in bringing it together in a group document. We believe that this research can help to identify good practice in academic tutoring so students continue to refer to Lesson Study over the course of their careers in order to activate rich learning processes based on reflection on their own practice.

Summary

This paper presents the results of research on Lesson Study's potential to reconstruct student teachers' practical knowledge. It specifically focuses on a Lesson Study implemented as part of the subjects Practicum III and Degree Essay, which are imparted in year four of the Degree in Early Childhood Education at Málaga University (Soto, Serván and Caparrós, 2016).

The work involves qualitative research that is developed through two case studies. The cases selected were two groups of four and six students with different academic tutoring, with one student from each group being selected for in-depth follow-up. The Lesson Study comprises practice over the course of four months, carried out in schools as part of the Practicum III. Here the first six phases are developed: (1) Define the problem; (2) Design the Experimental Lesson; (3) Develop the first Experimental Lesson; (4) Analyse; (5) Redesign; (6) Develop the second Experimental Lesson. The experience will finish with drafting and defending the Degree Essay, which makes up phase seven (analysis and presentation in an expanded context). Observation meetings were held throughout this period in all the students' sessions with their academic tutor at the University, in the students' work meetings, and in developing the two Experimental Lessons. All observations were recorded in a field notebook and filmed on video. Group interviews were also carried out at the start and end of the experience, as well as individual interviews with the students chosen. The cooperative documents prepared by the groups of students and their individual portfolios were also reviewed. All the information collected was analysed and categorised.

The results of the research have shown that academic tutoring by university teachers must overcome several key challenges, which must be taken into account when designing Lesson Study experiences in these subjects. Specifically, the biggest challenges identified were students' difficulties in cooperative work, and the contrast between their enthusiasm for developing the proposal and their difficulty in bringing it together in a group document. We believe that this research can help to reflect on how to manage these difficulties or challenges, assessing their pros and cons before starting work, in order to encourage future teachers to identify Lesson Study as a methodology which is applicable to their profession and not simply an academic proposal that only forms part of their training. In other words, we need to identify good practice in academic tutoring (e.g. following up with the group, supporting individual reflection through feedback on the portfolio, creating an atmosphere of trust in which the group can express itself emotionally, offering up questions that guide reflection rather than answers, etc.) so students continue to refer to Lesson Study over the course of their careers in order to activate rich learning processes based on reflection on their own practice, thoughts and beliefs (Hagger & Hazel, 2006: Korthagen, 2010) and the continuous reconstruction of their own practice (Schön, 1987; Pérez Gómez, Soto y Serván, 2011).

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Academic tutoring, Practical knowledge, Practicum

When academic teaching is not what it seems: the non-cognitive dimension of academic teaching

Paper105Noriyuki Inoue, Waseda University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Japan

BoardroomTue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Non-cognitive abilities are known to predict future success of students. In Japanese schools, teachers are expected to aim at not only students’ academic development but also their whole person development. Then how do Japanese teachers actually nurture students’ non-cognitive abilities in academic classes? This on-going study investigated this issue by observing 13 Japanese expert teachers’ 3rd-6th grade math lessons, follow-up interviews with the teachers and student questionnaires. The preliminary data analyses indicated that the expert teachers prioritized socio-emotional development of the students in their math lessons such as valuing others’ perspectives in problem solving and gaining confidence to speak up their ideas in front of their peers in the changing situations of their math lessons. Students reported a higher level of non-cognitive skills compared to students taught by novice teachers. The study suggests the importance of focusing on this dimension of academic teaching in lesson study and teacher education dialogues.

Summary

It is well-known that non-cognitive abilities predict future success of students (Heckman & Kautz, 2012). This means that schooling needs to be reconceptualized as an arena not only to promote students’ academic performances but also to cultivate students’ non-cognitive abilities such as interpersonal skills and the sense of self-efficacy and autonomy. However, it is not well-studied how teachers can actually nurture students’ non-cognitive abilities in daily educational practices. In Japanese schools, it is typically assumed that students’ whole person development needs be promoted in the context of academic teaching (Lewis, 1995). Then how do Japanese teachers actually nurture students’ non-cognitive abilities in their academic lessons?

This on-going study investigated this issue through observations of 13 expert teachers’ 3rd-6th grade math lessons in Japanese elementary schools, follow-up interviews with the teachers on their intentions of the key actions and interactions during the lessons as well as student questionnaires on non-cognitive learning in the observed classes. The 13 teachers were identified by the school district and the principals as the expert teachers. The student questionnaires were designed to assess their non-cognitive abilities in terms of the three key constructs (autonomy, relatedness and competence) of Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

The preliminary data analyses indicated that the expert teachers’ key actions during the math lessons were targeted to nurture socio-emotional development of the students in the changing situations of their math teaching such as valuing others’ perspectives in the process of problem solving, gaining confidence to speak up one’s mathematical ideas in front of the class and understanding the meaningfulness of working together in the process of whole-class consensus building on key mathematical concepts during problem solving. The teacher incorporated diverse interactions at various points of the lessons to make sure that all the students are on the same page in math learning and helped underachieving students build confidence and the sense of agency in their learning. In the classes taught by the expert teachers, students gained a higher level of autonomy, relatedness and competence compared to students taught by novice teachers. Most of the expert teachers attributed this aspect of their teaching expertise to local-level lesson study and mentorship that had helped them open their eyes to this dimension of academic teaching and shaped their teacher identity.

This study suggests the importance of considering academic teaching as a context of promoting non-cognitive abilities. Further studies are needed to investigate how novice teachers in different cultural contexts could be helped to acquire this dimension of teacher expertise and shape their identity as educators in lesson study and teacher education practices.

References

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Heckman, J. J. and T. Kautz. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skill, Labor Economics, 19、 451-464.

Lewis, C. (1995). Educating Hearts and Minds: Reflections on Preschool and Early Elementary Education in Japan. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Japanese math lessons, , Teacher expertise

Improving knowledge and skills of students with different levels based on their needs and abilities

Paper189Zhansaya Abdrashitova, Nazarbayev Intellectual School Astana, Humanities, Kazakhstan

BoardroomTue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Abdrashitova Zh., Baizhakanov M., Sarsenbayeva D.

The aim: to improve the efficiency of results of three representative students from one class according to their needs and abilities at history lessons.

The methodology: using a differentiation (distribution of material for individual work and roles in group work).

Findings: there are three different students according to Bloom's Taxonomy: student A with high scores requires special attention who is at the stage of “synthesizing”. Needs to be offered the creative tasks. Student B is at “understanding” level, needs to follow instructions properly and keep time-management for “applying” knowledge. Student C has fragmentary knowledge, his goal is to achieve the level of “understanding”.

Significance for practice and relevance for the Lesson study and teacher professional development: shift of students’ levels through Bloom’s Taxonomy to higher level and usage of experience in improving students’ skills and knowledge that will be applicable for same students’ cases.

Summary

To improve knowledge and skills of students with different three levels of academic performance according to their needs and abilities at history lessons

NAZARBAYEV INTELLECTUAL SCHOOL OF ASTANA IB

Abdrashitova Zhansaya, Baizhakanov Medet, Sarsenbayeva Dinara.

The purpose of the Lesson study is to investigate the progress of participation and to improve the efficiency of results of three representative students from one class: student who is performing good, average and below average progress in cross curricular skill.

According to Bloom's Taxonomy, student A with high scores requires special attention, as she is at the stage of “synthesizing” information. To maintain motivation, she needs to be offered the creative tasks with a challenge to solve problems. Student B has difficulties at the stage of “applying” the information, while possessing enhanced skills of “knowledge” and “understanding” levels. In order to achieve this level, he needs to follow instructions properly and keep time-management. The third student C has fragmentary knowledge of the lesson materials and the main goal is to achieve the level of “understanding”.

Lesson study consists of 3 cycles. Method of solving problems: using a differentiated approach (distribution of material for individual work and roles in group work), to ensure growth in the Bloom taxonomy levels of each of the students studied.

For joint planning, the method of differentiation was used by teacher-researchers, using data on skills, academic performance and characteristics of children gathered from the tutor, psychologist, and other teachers. The researchers conducted a survey in the form of a sociogram, after which it was revealed that student A, through the eyes of classmates, is a good organizer, student B is a researcher, and student C is well-skilled in IT. Thus, the first cycle was aimed at differentiation by skills for the collaborative group work managed through distribution of roles and work with different types of sources. The second cycle was conducted in the form of team competition performed through work based on one source with differentiated tasks per each “case” students. The third cycle was conducted in the form of individual work through usage of two types of sources and providing final product – individual extended answer that allows to understand are the goals of Lesson Study achieved. As the result of Lesson Study, student C reached the level of “understanding”, student B moved from the level of “understanding” to the level of “application”, and student A had a motivation for learning for three cycles.

The advantage of Lesson Study for teacher-researchers: the three “case” students (levels according to Bloom’s Taxonomy: student A – “synthesis”, student B – “understanding”, student C – “knowledge”) are commonly familiar to all MYP grades, this way the teachers have a real experience in improving students’ skills and knowledge that will be applicable for all same students’ cases.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Differentiation, Experience, Pedagogies

Development & improvement of a teacher professional development program for the graduate students

Paper61Takashi Nakai, Masahito Yoshimura, Koji Maeda, Nara University of Education, School of Professional Development in Education, Japan

BoardroomTue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to develop & improve a teacher professional development program for the graduate students through analyzing their reflective thinking in the collaborative reflection for two academic years.

The participants in the study were a total of 20 pre-service teachers (PT) and 15 in-service teachers (IT) for two academic years. They were divided into groups, each of which has some ITs and some PTs, and engaged in our collaborative reflection program. All reflective writings of ITs and PTs were analyzed from the viewpoints of their practical thinking style of reflection and their pedagogical knowledge.

We have improved the program based on the results of the first-year program and have implemented it for the second year. We will show the design of the program in detail with its expected outcomes.

Summary

The purpose of this study is to develop & improve a teacher professional development program for the graduate students through analyzing their reflective thinking in the collaborative reflection for two academic years.

This project started on April, 2017 and finished on February, 2019. The participants in the study were a total of 20 pre-service teachers (PTs) and 15 in-service teachers (ITs) for two academic years. They were divided into groups, each of which has some ITs and some PTs, and engaged in our collaborative reflection program. The procedure for collecting the reflective writings of PTs & ITs was as follows.

1) PTs in each group wrote their reflective comments on the video clip of their own micro-teaching, and also the ITs in the same group wrote their comments on the copied video clip of the PTs’ micro-teachings as a mentor.

2) PTs revised and improved their own teachings based both on their own & their mentor’s reflective writings.

3) The members in each group reflected on the lessons conducted by PTs during the practicum following the same procedure as the step 1).

In these reflections, lessons were reflected using the web-based reflective system where comments can be directly written down beside any scene picked from video clips. All the reflective writings of ITs and PTs were analyzed from the viewpoints of their practical thinking style of reflection (Sato, Iwakawa & Akita, 1990) and the pedagogical knowledge in Yoshizaki’s (1987) frameworks. Also, triangulation and member checks are used to ensure credibility of the findings (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).

The results of the first year; a) both PTs & ITs wrote more comments on teachers teaching than on the students learning, b) the number of the writings by PTs became smaller in the 2nd reflection compared with the 1st reflection, c) most of the PTs’ writings were about Reasoning of their own teaching, above all, about Improvement of their own teaching, d) most of the ITs’ writings were about Reasoning, among which Intention & Improvement of teaching were dominant, e) PTs wrote reflective comments on their own teaching based on the knowledge of Pedagogy, Subject Matter & Pedagogy, Pedagogy & Students, all of which were related to Pedagogy both on the micro-teaching lessons and on the lessons in the practicum and f) the parallel tendency to e) was observed in the reflective comments written by ITs as mentors, in that they were based on the same categories of knowledge as PTs’ comments.

From these results of the first year, we specified some challenges for improvements, such as the angles of the videotaping of the lesson, letting PTs reflect other PTs’ lesson as a mentor and to reflect the real lesson instead of the micro-teaching, etc. We have improved the contents of the program based on these challenges and tried to implement the revised one for the second year. We will show the specific results and the design of the revised program in detail.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Collaborative reflection, Reflective thinking, Teacher professional development

Structure and agency: comparing Lesson Study practices in Asian contexts

Symposium112Heng Jiang, National Institute of Education/Nanyang Technological University, Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning, Singapore; Xiangming Chen, Beijing University, China; Eric, Chi Keung Cheng, The Education University of Hong Kong, China; Tetsuo Kuramoto, Aichi University of Education, Japan

Buenos Aires '72Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This symposium attempts to unpack the complexity of lesson study crafting in the Asian contexts and explores how teachers are engaged in lesson study practices from an international and comparative perspective. We address the following questions: (1) How do teachers practice lesson study? (2) How does lesson study work as a tool to mediate between the professional/policy discourses and teachers’ classroom practices? (3) How have various models of lesson study developed in Asian contexts to mediate between the policy/academic discourses and teachers’ understanding of teaching and learning? The symposium consists of qualitative studies from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Singapore. Such a comparative perspective reveals different models of lesson study practices, wherein teachers participate and adapt lesson study in their particular contexts. The findings also suggest how innovative adaptations of lesson study could be practically similar as the teachers strive to address the fundamental issues in education.

Summary

Lesson Study has gained significant momentum worldwide in the past decade as it is deemed as a powerful tool for curriculum development and management, educational change, school reforms, and teacher professional development. While there is abundant research on lesson study (Dudley, 2013; Lewis, C., Perry, R., & Hurd, 2009; Vrikki et al., 2017), it still remains somewhat elusive how the variety of lesson study practices have grown in different contexts within the Asian region in which the centralized curriculum, accountability of teachers and the standardized testing of students have been dominant (Chen & Yang, 2013; Han & Paine, 2010; Huang, Fang, & Chen, 2017). Even fewer studies compared how teachers in these areas strategically adopt and adapt lesson study to assimilate and accommodate the professional discourses proposed by educational researchers, school leaders, and/or policy makers, as well as mediate their own teaching expertise (Ebaeguin & Stephens, 2014; White & Lim, 2008).

This symposium, Structure and Agency: Comparing Lesson Study Practices in Asian Contexts attempts to unpack the complexity of lesson study in the Asian contexts, and explores how teachers are engaged in lesson study practices from an international and comparative perspective. Specifically, the presentations seek to address the following questions: (1) How do teachers practice lesson study? (2) How does lesson study work as a tool to mediate between the professional/policy discourses and teachers’ classroom practices? (3) How have various models of lesson study developed in Asian contexts to mediate between the policy/academic discourses and teachers’ understanding of teaching and learning?

This symposium consists of presentations on the qualitative case studies from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Singapore. Such a comparative perspective reveals different models of lesson study practices, wherein teachers participate and adapt lesson study in their particular contexts. The nuance represented in each case raises the awareness of the significant variety and different models of practices within the commonly referred to as “lesson study” as “a signature pedagogy” for teachers in Asia. However, the flow of the ideas across the cases may also suggest how innovative adaptations of lesson study could be practically similar in different contexts as the teachers strive to address the fundamental issues in education (Pang & Marton, 2017).

The findings suggested that in the pedagogical discourses shaped by centralized school systems with quality assurance and curriculum management, teachers are appropriating various resources to develop their expertise with lesson study—not only via technical procedures of implementing lesson study but also actively constructing their interpretations on what they can learn from the process to meet demands from different stakeholders. While the illustration of the cases is uniquely Asian, implications include concerns about teacher professional learning, curriculum management, and educational reforms common to many other educational contexts.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Implications of Lesson Study for Teacher Learning in Mainland China

Xiangming Chen

Beijing University, Beijing, China

In the past twenty-five years, teachers in Mainland China have been torn by a dilemmatic tension between the exam-oriented education under pressure from society (especially administrators and parents) and the education for student development advocated by academic reformers and the central government. The role of the local government is misleadingly contradictory in that it calls on reforms with constructivist ideas while ranking schools and students with centralized exams. It is under this complex sociocultural context. I will report how teachers in China have been using lesson study as a tool to mediate among the conflicting demands from different stakeholders. In their collaboration with university scholars and open-minded school managers, teachers are learning how to fight a win-win battle by improving the quality of learning and the exam scores of their students simultaneously through lesson study. Empirical data will be collected mainly from my recent fieldwork in a secondary school in Beijing, as well as my personal experiences in China in the past decade. The analysis is guided by a cultural perspective with the Confucian doctrine of the mean as the theoretical framework, so as to deepen understanding of various lesson study models in Asia.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

The Roles of Lesson Study in Hong Kong: Quality Assurance Policy Perspective

Cheng, Chi Keung Eric

The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

This case study explores the roles of Lesson Study under the educational quality assurance (QA) policy in Hong Kong. It aims to examine how Lesson Study works as a tool to address the QA policy through improving teachers’ classroom practices. Interviews and participant observations were conducted in four schools for qualitative data analysis. The findings show that Lesson Study is conceptualized by teachers as a process of collaborative lesson planning, lesson observations and post-lesson conferencing. However, due to the limitation of administrative resources, lesson observation is usually excluded from the process. Two roles of Lesson Study were identified: 1. Lesson Study plays a role to bridge the gap between student assessment and curriculum implementation since the topics with the worse academic results were selected as the main themes for the research lessons for improving the teaching quality. 2. Lesson Study serves as a tool for fulfilling the key performance measures (KPM) of professional development of teacher for the QA policy. The study contributes to the understanding of the instrumental roles of Lesson Study to address the requirements for quality of education and teacher professional development.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

The trend of Lesson Study in Japan - from the perspective of Curriculum Management

Tetsuo Kuramoto

Aichi University of Education, Japan

School improvement from the perspective of lesson study is not only for individual teachers’ efforts to achieve educational outcomes but also for school to manage curriculum and develop lessons. This presentation addresses two themes. Firstly, I introduce the theoretical characteristics of Japanese lesson study and summarize the theoretical consistency between lesson study and curriculum management, which is the central concept of the new national curriculum guidelines from 2018. Generally, the fundamental factors of curriculum management are divided into three clusters: (1) curriculum philosophy, mission, vision, strategy, (2) lesson study, curriculum leadership & school culture, professional learning community, knowledge management, and (3) students’ academic achievement and personal growth, and the enhancement of teachers’ professional skills (Kuramoto & Associates, 2014). Secondly, I argue that the SECI model, knowledge leadership, and lesson study are effective functions for curriculum management. In combination, they can foster comprehensive school improvement, and ultimately become an organizational driving force to educate students and facilitate teacher professional learning. The above themes are analyzed through a case of lesson study in sync with leadership and curriculum management in Japan.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Lesson Study for Teacher Learning in Singapore: A Pedagogical Perspective

Jiang, Heng

National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Drawing upon the idea of pedagogical domains (Alexander, 2000, 2010; Deng, 2018), this study argues that lesson study provides a pedagogical space for teachers in Singapore to learn from analyzing the substance of curriculum content which informs, justifies, and modifies the act of teaching and learning to which that teaching is directed. The centralized curriculum and assessment oriented education system in Singapore may have both made such systematic teacher learning practices possible and set constraints. This qualitative study is based on fieldwork over two years in two primary schools and one secondary school in Singapore. It reveals how teachers participate, interact, and creatively adapt lesson study as a platform both for their professional development and reacting to educational reforms in their particular school contexts. The findings suggest that lesson study provides following affordances for teacher learning: (1) eliciting hypotheses in dialogue; (2) creating a pedagogical space for alternative perspectives; (3) collaboratively scrutinizing student learning evidence for follow-up teaching; and (4) identifying problems for further discussions. Limitations set for these affordances in Singapore educational contexts are also discussed.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
International and Comparative Perspective, Teacher agency

Intervene from activities initiated by pupils: the case of free play

Paper199Anne Clerc-Georgy, University of Teacher Education Vaud, Switzerland

Koninklijke logeTue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to describe and analyse an original adaptation of the lesson study approach implemented in the first years of schooling. Taking into account children's perspectives, the aim here is to design classroom interventions based on pupil-initiated activities.

The methodology used is the case study. The analysis focuses on the evolution of play moments in the classroom and the nature of teachers' interventions in these moments. It is completed by the exchanges during the preparation and debriefing that surround these teaching moments.

The first results show the initial reluctance that teachers may have to intervene in moments of play before gradually understanding the nature of the interventions that could foster the development of a mature play.

This presentation focuses on the professional development of teachers and illustrates an innovative use of lesson studies.

Summary

This work was carried out as part of a research and training project involving teachers of the first four years of schooling (4 to 8 years) in Switzerland. The objective was to enhance the value of free play in these degrees. The approach adopted was a new form of lesson study since the aim was to prepare to intervene in response to activities initiated by pupils.

This research-training is relevant to teaching practice, teachers’ professional development and their understanding of the development potential fostered by free play.

We have retained two theoretical frameworks. The first one is the historical-cultural approach and particularly the analysis of the role of play developed by Vygotsky (1933/2016). In this context, play is the activity most likely to generate developmental gains for children between 3 and 7. It creates a zone of potential development because it allows the distance from reality, the possibility of separating the object from its meaning and the emancipation of the limits imposed by the use of situations in everyday reality. But this play is also based on the offers of meaning offered in its environment (Clerc-Georgy, 2018). Researches has shown the links between these developmental gains and play maturity (Elias & Berk, 2002).

The second theoretical framework is children's perspectives developed by Sommer et al (2013). According to these authors, children's perspectives consist, for adults, in seeking to understand children's perceptions, experiences, statements and actions. Play is a privileged place to observe these perspectives, especially the meaning that children give to the proposed offers of meaning.

The research question is : How do teachers intervene in pupil-initiated activities, especially in moments of free play?

Methodology used is case study. The analysis focuses on the observation and evolution of play moments in the classroom as well as the nature of teachers' interventions during these moments. The data are completed by exchanges during preparation and debriefing phases.

The first results show the initial reluctance that teachers may have to intervene in moments of free play. Indeed, they are afraid to block children's play. The preparation and identification of possible types of interventions allowed them to gradually dare to intervene in order to promote the development of a mature play. These transformations involve a dialectical interaction between changing practices and changing conceptions of play and of the teacher's role.

So the lesson study approach in the context of the first years of schooling and about pupil-initiated activities, as well as the analysis of its effects on teachers' practices and conceptions, illustrate the need and importance of thinking differently about teaching in these degrees. It is important to take into account both the role of play and children's perspectives in building the first learnings that are essential to successful schooling for all pupils.

Finally, the research made it possible to question the use of lesson studies in the preparation not of lessons, but of teachers' possibilities of intervention in the face of unpredictable activities, because they were initiated by children.

Innovative uses of Lesson Study
Classroom interventions, Free play, Pupil-initiated activities

Using variation theory to teach Primary students in Hong Kong to write passages that describe others

Paper352Ho Chung Lee, Kei Tung Yim, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hongkong; Anna Julia Frey, Pädagogische Hochschule Tirol, Austria

Koninklijke logeTue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This paper focuses on the usage of variation theory in a learning study that aims at teaching two classes of primary one English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students (aged 6-7) in Hong Kong how to compose a paragraph that describes another person by ten practice teachers (year 2-3) from the Education University of Hong Kong. Pre- and post-tests were adopted to test the knowledge of the students to confirm the critical features and evaluate the effectiveness of two teaching cycles. The design of the second cycle got refined according to the reflection of the first cycle. Through the research, a discrepancy between the performance of male and female students was noticed. A correlation between students’ performances and methods of teaching was also made clear by the data obtained from the tests. This paper provides insights on different possibilities of lesson design and application of Variation Theory in a learning study approach.

Summary

This paper reflects on a learning study which employed variation theory, conducted by ten pre-service teachers. The flow of the research was as follows: A pre-test was first designed and administered to the target students in regard to the selected object of learning. The results were then analysed to identify students’ learning needs, and a lesson plan would be designed in order to tackle the problems in the pre-test. A pre-test was conducted to find out the difficulties of students when constructing simple sentences, meanwhile testing their prior knowledge needed for the class. It was noticed that the main issue students encountered while constructing sentences was that most of them wrote incomprehensible words such as Chinese characters or simple symbols. The problems of lack of vocabularies, misuse of adjectives and poor sentence and paragraph structure were hence detected. It could be concluded that the result of pre-test had laid the foundation for further adjustment of the lesson plan.

On top of that, the first teaching cycle was taught by a group of five teachers in the first class. The lesson was reflected on and adjusted subsequently, according to the lesson plan and observation by the second group of five teachers responsible for the next class, with the purpose to ameliorate the lesson. The polished lesson plan was then taught in the second class, followed by a post-test that aims at examining the effectiveness of the overall teaching. The post-test results were analysed and compared with those of the pre-test, clearly stating the improvement in the second cycle.

Before the first lesson, 72.2% and 82.8% of the students taking the pre-test did not attempt the task in Part A and Part B respectively whereas in the post-test every child attempted part A and 74% of the students attempted part B. It was shown that before the lesson, the students did not know how to solve the questions correctly and they were reluctant to write complete sentences. While after the lesson, students learned the required vocabularies and usage which made them able to write keywords and construct adequate sentences. This paper sheds light on the different possibilities of lesson design and appliance of Variation Theory in regard to guiding English-as-a-foreign-language students. Throughout the course of the study, the teachers involved were able to gain an authentic insight through both the pre- and post-test analysis, improving their understanding of the Variation Theory in the context of Hong Kong education by engaging and applying the theory in a practical setting with data research as a solid ground of reinforcement. Learning study challenged the practice teachers, as “teachers to be”, to see learning through the eyes of the students. They are inspired to developed students’ confidence by learning through learning study and to cooperate with other teachers, to encourage and aid the students in the best possible ways, so that they can learn and understand better.

Learning Studies
Hong Kong Students, Lesson Design

Action(re)call: a method researching knowing -in-action

Paper8Pernilla Ahlstrand, University of Gothenburg, Academy of music and drama, Sweden

Koninklijke logeTue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This project aims to further investigate and develop a method called action(re)callin a theatre teaching practice in upper secondary school in Sweden. The expected outcome will articulate subject-specific capabilities central to plan teaching activities in a systematic way which involves working with feedback strategies and assessment. Teachers in Sweden are, due to the last two curriculum reforms, expected to plan their teaching of the subject in order to make it possible for the students to develop specific ways of knowing corresponding to the prescribed subject-specific capabilities. The epistemological point of departure is a non-dualistic, relational and practice-based view of knowledge. The method is an example of how teachers and researchers can work together in exploring how knowing-in-action (Schön 1983) and the knowing relieved from the action can become visible and articulated. Knowing is to a large extent tacit in embodied (Polanyi 1962) as well as practice-based meaning (Wittgenstein 1992).

Summary

The last two curriculum reforms in Sweden have introduced new ways to (re)present the content of schooling. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject-specific capabilitiesfor the students to develop. This change of how the curriculum texts are formulated can be regarded as expressing the shift from a focus on knowledge (in terms of subject matter) to teach to a focus on ways of knowing (subject-specific capabilities)(Carlgren, Ahlstrand, Björkholm & Nyberg 2015). In Sweden, theater is an artistic subject at upper secondary level, as part of the national aesthetic program. Previous research in the field have pointed out the difficulty to describe the knowledge specific aspects of central capabilities that theatre as a school subject develops (Winner, Goldstein & Vincent- Lancrin 2013; McCammon & Österlind, 2011).

The epistemological point of departure is a non-dualistic, relational and practice-based view of knowledge. (Carlgren 2015; Polanyi 1962). It is to a large extent tacit in embodied (Polanyi 1962) as well as practice-based meaning (Wittgenstein 1992). It can be described as knowing-in-action (Schön 1983) and the knowing must somehow be relieved from the action in order to become visible and articulated.

This project aims to further investigate and develop a method called action(re)callin a theatre teaching practice in upper secondary school and research the question: which are the different ways of knowing involved inbeing able to act and communicate with an audience. In the research the assignment to create a stage production is video recorded and the rehearsal period is followed where a written text, a script, is supposed to be performed. The interventions that occur in the rehearsal process of the stage production is studied. During the rehearsals, situations arise when the teacher intervenes with the ongoing process (Ahlstrand 2015). The teacher stops the rehearsal based on difficulties with the student performance which has been identified. In the method, these situations are called didactic interventions. This means that on the occasion of didactic intervention, the researcher puts questions to teachers and students regarding the choices made in immediate connection with the intervention. The method is called action(re)calland is a development of stimulated recall(Haglund, 2003). While stimulated recall is used as a method outsidethe classroom, action(re)call has the focus on knowledgeinaction,insidethe classroom. In earlier studies learning studyhas been used as a research approach (Ahlstrand 2014; Ahlstrand 2018). In relation to the research lessons, involved in a learning study, a teacher and the researcher developed this method which will now be further refined.

In order to develop in-depth knowledge of what is happening at the time of didactic interventions, interaction analyses will be used (Jordan & Henderson, 1995). Interaction analyses are part of the conversation analytic field and focuses on physical actions. The analyses will start in the spring 2019 and the expected outcome will articulate subject-specific capabilities central to plan teaching activities in a systematic way which involves working with feedback strategies and assessment.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Theatre in upper secondary school, Ways of knowing

Teachers’ awareness of pupils’ content knowledge of geometric shapes

Paper203Balli Lelinge, Malmö university, Education and sociaty, Sweden

Londen '71Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The aim of the study is to analyze, from a perspective of variation theory, teachers’ awareness of using gratifying learning as a knowledge contribution for the pupils’ understanding of geometric shapes.

The study consists of three research lessons in three classes in grade 4.

In the intervention three teachers, 50 pupils and one researcher participated.

The pupils did a pre-test before the lesson and a post-test after.The result indicates that the teachers have distinguished the importance of combining a gratifying

learning to develop the pupils’ understanding of geometric shapes. Furthermore, in the teacher's

reflections, it appears that if the pupils are offered a structured and varied teaching pattern, their knowledge of geometry increase. Critical aspects found were to discern the shapes regarding the

differences between edges and line-shaped forms, and to understand the differences between two- and

three-dimensional representations of the geometric shapes.

Summary

An overall aim in this study is to analyze, from a perspective of variation theory, teachers’ awareness of using gratifying learning as a knowledge contribution for the pupils’ understanding of geometric shapes. The research question is: What differences is expressed by the teachers before and after the intervention of the learning object geometric shapes?

Variation theory has been the guiding principle in designing the interventions of this study.

According to the theory, learning depends on whether the pupils can distinguish the critical aspects

of the object of learning (Marton, 2015; Marton & Booth, 1997). In this study the teachers are using

a learning study approach to identify the pupils’ critical aspects to allow for the pupils to see,

discern, learn and understand more about geometric shapes (Holmqvist, 2006a; Holmqvist 2006b; Lo, 2014). The research methological aims are to find what features, or aspects, are identified for the

particular pupils’ which the teachers want to make discernable for the pupils (Marton, & Booth, 1997; Marton & Lo, 2017; Runesson, 2004).This paper is about the object of learning of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes. During a

four-month period, three teachers, 50 pupils and a researcher met every week for two hours. The

material constituted an iterative process regarding three research lessons in three different

classes in grade 4. In the first lesson (A) 18 pupils participated, in the second (B) 14 and in the

last lesson (C) 18 pupils. The research lessons were between 50-80 minutes each and the pupils took

a pre-test before the lesson and a post-test after. The main methods were: teacher collegial

reflections, interview, classroom observations and video/audio-recorded documentation.The results indicate that teachers' awareness of the effect on their teaching patterns increases

when analyzing the pupils’ learning outcomes. Group A’s conceptual understanding of the

three-dimensional shapes cube, cone, sphere and block increased from 33 to 71 percent, group B

increased from 43 to 57 percent, and group C from 50 to 61 percent. The highest increase was in

the first group, 38 percentage units, which is interesting as the revised lessons do not result

in increased learning outcome.Teachers’ ability to find out what aspects are critical for the pupils to discern is supposed to

increase during a learning study process. In this study, the teachers’ capability to enhance the

pupils’ learning outcome did not increase. In fact, it decreased as the difference in pre- and

post-tests showed +38 percentage units in lesson A, +14 in lesson B and finally +11 in lesson C. The

analysis of the teachers’ instruction show that what was made discernable in lesson A was the

intentionally on the content knowledge of geometric shapes. In lesson B and C, the instruction did

not meet the pupils’ needs regarding gratifying learning as a knowledge contribution for the pupils’

understanding of geometric shapes. Instead, a focus was on the pupils’ enjoyment during the lesson –

gratifying the pupils during the learning process, which did not enhance the pupils’ knowledge

development.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Geometric shapes, Professional Collaborative Development, Variation theory

Quality mathematical tasks for better learner engagement

Paper263Oonnithan Radha Devi, Hai Sing Catholic School, Mathematics, Singapore; Benjamin Yeong Whye Leong, Bedok South Secondary School, Mathematics, Singapore

Londen '71Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Students need to be exposed to mathematical problems that require them to be versatile to select appropriate strategies and access relevant knowledge. They must be able to make connections to what they have learnt using multiple representations which will help them to develop meaning and to monitor their own thinking. Tasks that are higher in cognitive demand were crafted for secondary students (13 to 16 years old) by a team of teachers from different schools. These tasks require non-algorithmic thinking which means that students are unable to predict the procedures to be used. Appropriate tasks were given based on students’ readiness. Students worked in teams and had to explain, justify and make connections to the different methods used. Teachers provided scaffolding, timely feedback and orchestrated the discussions in class. Evidences from students’ work, teachers’ feedback and survey results indicate to have a positive impact on students’ learning and self-efficacy.

Summary

The practice or context from which the work originates

Smith and Stein (1998) have emphasised that the highest learning gains for students result from engagement in high levels of cognitive thinking and reasoning. Tasks can be broken down in terms of four categories of cognitive demand:

Memorisation

Procedures without connections to concepts or meaning

Procedures with connections to concepts

Doing Mathematics

Relevance for educational practice

Teachers are encouraged to craft tasks that fall under the third and fourth categories which require deeper thinking and understanding of Mathematical concepts. Providing quality tasks in class allow students to think deeply using the mathematical knowledge learnt, communicate and justify their thoughts and work collaboratively in a team. These are qualities and skills that are essential in a VUCA world, one which is volatile, unrealistic, complex and ambiguous. Teachers can also orchestrate rich discussions with quality tasks.

Theoretical frameworks

Singapore Mathematics Curriculum Framework

The central focus in our framework is mathematical problem solving and this is supported by five inter-related components – concepts, attitudes, metacognition, processes and skills (Figure 1). This paper focusses on two of the components namely metacognition and processes. Students are expected to be able to select appropriate strategies when solving problems and be able to self-regulate their own learning and thinking. They must be able to justify their results using appropriate mathematical language and reasoning and communicate effectively.

Flow Theory

When students’ skill is matched with task difficulty, a state of ‘flow’ is achieved (Csíkszentmihalyi, M. 1996). Appropriate tasks are given based on students’ readiness. Providing the right scaffolding, allowing them to analyse the tasks and helping them to monitor their progress allow students to become intrinsically motivated.

Research Question

Will there be a change in students’ self-efficacy when solving Math problems?

Method

Tasks were crafted and conducted for secondary students (13 to 16 years old) by a team of teachers from different schools. These are problems which require students to analyse, think, choose appropriate strategies to solve and to make connections to what they have learnt. It can be solved using different methods as well. Students worked in teams and they had to explain, justify and make connections to the different methods used.

Results

Students’ written work show that they can use appropriate strategies to solve mathematical problems. Teachers also noticed that most students can communicate using appropriate math language to justify and evaluate their solutions. Survey results based on a self-efficacy formative questionnaire (Gaumer Erickson, A.S. & Noonan, P.M. 2018) shows an improvement.

Conclusion and Discussion

Students are used to solving routine textbook questions. Hence, they were not very comfortable when given such ‘rich’ tasks initially. They had to be given simple non-routine tasks and then introduced to such ‘rich’ tasks. With appropriate scaffolding, students’ mindset has changed, and they are now more interested in solving such tasks. More opportunities could be given to allow students to work on cognitively demanding tasks so that they find learning mathematics meaningful.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Engaging, Mathematics, Tasks

Critical aspects when analyzing equations with a part-whole structure

Paper90Jane Tuominen, Stockholm University, Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Sweden

Londen '71Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The aim of the presentation is to discuss what critical aspects enable students to discern relationships, based on a part-whole structure, between numbers in equations. Analyzing relationships and not merely focusing on calculating, may lead to positive consequences when performing addition and subtraction tasks. Learning study was used as research approach in order to identify what students need to discern and learn, so-called, critical aspects. Students in grades 3, 8 and 9 participated in video recorded research lessons and the recordings were transcribed and analyzed. According to the analysis, three critical aspects were identified, regardless grade. Concerning the findings, an implication may be that students already in early grades need to discern relationships between numbers in equations. This is an assumption, since also older students in the study tended to in a larger extent focus on calculating, not on relationships.

Summary

Indications show that students need to focus on general mathematical structures, not merely on calculations (Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001; Mason, Graham, & Johnston-Wilder, 2005). One reason may be that the learned becomes forgotten when mainly focusing on calculations based on rules and procedures (Chevallard, 2015).

The research question, formulated by the two researchers, is What critical aspects do students need to discern concerning relationships between numbers in equations with negative numbers included?

The learning study was conducted in three Swedish schools with eight teachers and students in grades 3, 8 and 9, totalling 149, with similarly limited experiences of teaching based on relationships between numbers in equations.

A core concept related to variation theory is critical aspects, which can be described as what students need to learn. Variation theory is commonly used in learning study (Marton, 2015). However, in this study, learning activity was used as a theoretical tool (see Eriksson, 2017). Based on learning activity, learning models (e.g., Figure 1) are central in order to visualize and mediate the content (Davydov, 2008). Structural and abstract properties are captured by learning models (Davydov, 2008; Gorbov & Chudinova, 2000).

Figure 1. A learning model, inspired by Davydov (2008).

The learning model used during the research lessons.

Video recorded research lessons were conducted iteratively, where relationships between numbers in equations were explored by a part-whole structure (Schmittau, 2005), supported by the learning model above. The recordings were transcribed and analyzed and signs of critical aspects were highlighted.

In the analysis, three critical aspects were identified:

two parts together build up a whole with the same value as the two parts together. The critical aspect can also be described as if one of the parts is taken away from the whole, the other part is what remains (cf. Tuominen, Andersson, Boistrup, & Eriksson, 2018),

the same relationship can be formulated in four different ways, though the relationship is still the same,

when negative numbers are included in part-whole structures, the whole assumes a lower value than one of the parts.

According to the analysis, students, regardless grade, needed to discern the same critical aspects. One reason may be that the students had similarly limited experiences of focusing on relationships between numbers.

The first aspect can be discerned separated from the other two and it seems that it needs to be distinguished before the other two aspects. However, the first and second critical aspects can be discerned simultaneously.

Focusing on equations with negative numbers included, the first and second critical aspects are prerequisites in order to discern the third. However, the three critical aspects can be explored simultaneously (cf. Marton, 2015).

Assuming it is important to focus on relationships, based on a part-whole structure, there is a need of knowledge of the critical aspects, although they are related to students and what is to be learned (cf. Marton, 2015). Nevertheless, the findings can be relevant for teaching practice in similar school systems when planning and conducting lessons concerning relationships between numbers in equations.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Critical aspects, Learning study, Part-whole structure

Enhancing children’s learning of ‘composite figures’ through a variation theory framework

Paper109Yueh Yuan Goh, Siew Lin Lee, Academy of Singapore Teachers, Pedagogical Excellence Branch, Singapore

Madrid '69Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the variation in perception of composite figures in young children, and how the variation theory can be used as a pedagogical principle to develop mathematical ability of the children and enable them to apply their understanding in finding the areas of composite figures. The study involved a team of 4 teachers teaching 168 Grade 6 students in a Singapore primary school. Facilitated by a knowledgeable other from the Academy of Singapore Teachers, this collaborative and iterative learning study approach sought to teach the object of learning. The findings of the study show that the patterns of variation designed and implemented had a significant impact on the understanding of students about composite figures. The teachers’ understanding of the use of variation theory has increased significantly through their involvement and they are now more confident to use the variation approach to develop their practice.

Summary

Learning Study is one of the critical Inquiry methods offered by the Academy of Singapore Teachers for teachers to reflect on and improve their practice systematically. Underpinned by a learning theory with the emphasis on the object of learning and the use of pattern of variation, Learning Study is said to enhance the quality of teaching and students’ understanding.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the variation in perception of composite figures in young children, and how the variation theory can be used as a pedagogical principle to develop mathematical ability of the children and enable them to apply their understanding in finding the areas of composite figures. Thus, this study seeks to answer the research questions: (1) To what extent has the children’s understanding of the composite figures improved using the variation approach to teaching; and (2) how the collaborative learning study enhanced the teachers’ practice as well their professional growth.

A team of 4 teachers teaching 168 Grade 6 students in a Singapore primary school facilitated by a knowledgeable other from the Academy of Singapore Teachers participated in this collaborative and iterative learning study approach to teach the lesson. A diagnostic probe was designed and administered to find out students’ conceptions of the object of learning. The probe comprises variable questions of composite figures that require student to answer the question, “What shape/shapes do you see in the following figures?” The teachers analysed the students’ responses and their ways of thinking using a matrix to categorise their conceptions. With further analysis of students’ work coupled with the conduct of interviews with specific groups of students, the teachers eliminated some the tentative critical aspects that had been identified prior to the administration of the probe, and confirmed two critical aspects as follows:

Identify perpendicular and parallel lines in the 2-D shapes (that were identified) in relation to the given composite figure

Identify the dimensions and understand its relationships relative to the subdivided 2-D shapes within the composite figure

Three lessons were enacted using the patterns of variation and invariance of the critical aspects to enable students to discern the object of learning. At the end of each lesson, a colloquium was conducted to evaluate students’ learning and for teachers to reflect on the effectiveness of the lesson enacted, in particular, the use of contrast and generalisation.

The findings of the study show that the patterns of variation designed and implemented had a significant impact on the students’ understanding of composite figures. Through their involvement in this study teachers’ understanding of the use of variation theory has also increased significantly and they are now more confident to use the variation approach to develop their practice. This paper presents the case of learning study in a Singapore primary school and reported the learning process and experiences of the teachers in a collaborative framework and showed how an embedded powerful theory of learning can have significant impact on students’ mathematical thinking and application to solving problem in composite figures.

Learning Studies
Patterns of Variation

Use of variation theory to enhance children’s learning of ‘condensation’ in primary science

Paper120Su Fen Goh, Siew Lin Lee, Ministry of Education / Academy of Singapore Teachers, Singapore

Madrid '69Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This paper reports the findings on the use of variation theory by two teams of primary science teachers to design and deliver lessons to teach on condensation - a concept which several of their students have difficulty understanding. This qualitative study involving 2 groups of grade 5 students from two schools in Singapore seeks to (1) investigate the use of variation theory as a framework to design effective science lessons and (2) explore the use of the variation theory framework to enhance teachers’ professional practice. Findings revealed that the patterns of variation provided teachers a frame to systematically design lessons to help students better discern the object of learning; teachers also reported that they found it useful as the patterns of variation provided them with a common language to dialogue and reflect upon the teams’ learning during the learning study process.

Summary

The use of lesson study as one of the professional development practices to encourage teachers to work together in teams to become more effective teachers has been used extensively in Singapore. It is only in recent years that the use of learning study, a kind of lesson study with an explicit learning theory, has gained traction in the local schools.

The learning study approach, premised on variation theory of learning, provides a unique perspective on teaching and learning in this study. The study involving 2 classes of grade 5 students from two primary schools, each embarked on a learning study cycle together with a knowledgeable other, aim to:

(i) investigate the use of variation theory as a framework to design effective science lessons;

(ii) explore the use of the variation theory framework to enhance teachers’ professional practice.

The study was largely qualitative in nature and involved using observations, interviews and surveys as the form of data collection. The sample was drawn from 2 classes from two different co-educational schools in Singapore, with each class having about 40 students. Both schools were chosen as they had indicated an interest in wanting to explore the use of variation theory in addressing students’ ideas on ‘Condensation. The team started by first conducting pre-test and interviews with students to find out their intuitive ways of understanding the object of learning. Teaching activities were then designed to best enable students to experience the desired patterns of variation that will help to bring about learning. Students’ artefacts as well as interviews were also collected to find out if they have discerned the object of learning. A colloquium and teachers’ survey were also conducted to evaluate teachers’ reflection on the effectiveness of the lessons, in particular on the use of variation theory.

Findings from the study revealed that students had a better understanding on the concept on ‘Condensation’ even though the teaching activities for the patterns of variation were different in both schools. The teachers also reflected that the use of patterns of variation not only provides a frame for them to systematically guide students in achieving conceptual understanding, it also provides a common language for teachers to dialogue and reflect upon in their teams. The knowledgeable other who embarked on the journey with the teachers also reflected how powerfully patterns of variation has influenced them in their way of teaching and how they had grown in their teaching competencies through the learning study cycle.

This study has contributed to the field of learning study by adding to the limited number of studies done in the area of learning study in Singapore primary science classrooms. The findings also highlighted some practical implications for teachers of primary science as they design teaching and learning experiences for students: the importance of being aware of the ideas that students bring to class, taking into account these ideas in the design of lesson and teaching with these ideas in mind, all guided by the use of patterns of variation.

Learning Studies
Learning study, Professional development, Science learning

Applying learning study in special education: what we learned

Paper47Ka Wai Leung, The Education University of Hong Kong, Curriculum and Instruction, Hongkong

Madrid '69Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This paper reports on a collective case study of three learning studies taught by different special school teachers under the Mathematics subject with the purpose of identifying the teaching principles of Learning Study (LS) and how LS supports student learning. Based on the pre-post test , students’interviews, and lesson observations, two major principles, consolidation and extension are identified. The consolidation principle emphasises applying variation theory in designing different types of activities for students to understand the critical features of the learning object, so that their knowledge can be consolidated. The extension principle emphasises the extension of the space of learning and catering the diverse needs of students. They are also design principles commonly found, with the emphases on student learning needs and the reflective teaching. The findings contribute to the design of Learning Study in Mathematics, especially on how to cater the individual differences under Special Education.

Summary

Learning study is an effective instructional strategy in teacher education programs for engaging students more actively in the learning process. In spite of the extensive studies on Learning Study in teacher education programs and courses, few studies are devoted to investigating the implementation of mathematic teaching in special education lessons. This study describes the implementation of three Learning Study projects in special schools by the collaboration among staffs from University, Education Bureau and local special schools.

This study adopted the theory and practice of learning study. Three Mathematics topics were selected for the teaching themes among three Learning Study projects: distinguish the shapes/ categorize objects/ identify the direction of left & right. The learning study encompassed six major steps: selection of a topic, design of a pre-test and analysis of its results, design of a lesson plan, implementation of the lesson plan and post-test, evaluation of the learning study, and reflection on the learning study. From the teachers’ experiences, the misconceptions of students were discussed. In general, students only knew the concept of shapes by drilling, but had no concept on the differences between circles and triangles since they only able to name the different shape but hardly tell why they were different. Even though some students had some concepts of categorization, they had a weak understanding of the relationship between a pair and concept of identical. Most students had little understanding of why two persons stood oppositely, their direction of left & right will be different.

A pre-test was designed to test students’ prior knowledge of the related concepts of the topic and was administered to the different classes among three Learning Study Projects in different time phases. Results of the pre-tests were analysed and a lesson plan was drafted according to the pre-test results and critical features were identified as well. The cycle of teaching were carried out in each Learning Study under different topics and students were post-tested. The lesson was analysed and evaluated in the light of the post-test results, which were focused on the evaluation of and reflection on the learning study as a whole.

It was found that Learning study enables teachers to apply the theory of variation to reflect proactively on their teaching, to organise lessons better, and to cater for individual differences in learning mathematics. Through identification of students’ misconceptions, teachers are in a better position to understand teaching from students’ perspective. This helps teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge in mathematics. Further, the results of our analysis of Learning Study projects indicate that two major principles, consolidation and extension have structured the practices of learning study in cultivating a culture of collaboration and caters for individual differences. It provides an explanatory framework for special school teacher professional learning and growth and could help to reform practices.

Learning Studies
Learning study, Mathematics teaching, Special education

Building collaboration and listening pedagogy through lesson study for learning community

Symposium216Christine Lee, National Institute of Education/Nanyang Technological University, Curriculum, Teaching and Learning, Singapore; Ban Heng Choy, National Institute of Education/Nanyang Technological University, Math and Math Education, Singapore; Rachel Goh, National Institute of Education/Nanyang Technological University, Curriculum, Teaching & Learning, Singapore; Manabu Sato, Gakushuin University, Japan

Omloop NoordTue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This symposium will share the preliminary findings of a pilot project of implementing Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC) in a primary school in Singapore to develop a culture of collaboration and listening pedagogy in classrooms. Our exploratory project uses a case study approach involving a team of Mathematics and English Language teachers over a period of two years. Our research questions included the following (i) how do teachers understand and enact a listening stance and collaborative learning in their classroom practice? and (ii) what are the challenges teachers face when making this fundamental shift from teaching as telling to teaching as listening as well as in their design and implementation of collaborative learning? Our sources of data are interviews with teachers, observations of lesson study cycles and classroom practices. This exploratory study has provided us deeper insights into the complexities of LSLC implementation in schools.

Summary

This symposium explores the implementation of Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC) in a Singapore primary school to develop a culture of collaboration and listening pedagogy in classrooms. LSLC is an extension of the Lesson Study (LS) approach developed more recently in Japan and has spread to China, Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan and Vietnam. It has yet to be implemented in Singapore schools although a national survey conducted in 2014 found that 190 schools in Singapore (about 53% of all schools) have implemented Lesson Study in various forms and scale (Lee & Lim, 2018). Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC) builds on adaptations of Japanese Lesson Study as advocated by Sato (2008) and envisions schools and classrooms as learning communities where teachers learn together through Lesson Study to support their students to learn though collaboration and listening pedagogy. Collaborative learning and listening pedagogy have the potential to bring about better engagement and learning in classroom and to develop a culture of care in schools.

Our exploratory project uses a case study approach to study the implementation of LSLC involving a team of mathematics teachers and a team of English teachers in a primary school over a period of two years. Implementing LSLC is a social-political process as it involves a re-culturing of the school and classrooms, a change in mindsets and interactions of several stakeholders in the school. One can expect intrinsic dilemmas in the change process given the uniqueness at the school site and capacity of the teachers to implement the change. The pilot project explores several research questions, two of which will be addressed in this symposium: (i) how do teachers understand and enact a listening stance and collaborative learning in their classroom practice? and (ii) what are the challenges teachers face when making this fundamental shift from teaching as telling to teaching as listening as well as in their design and implementation of collaborative learning tasks? Our sources of data included interviews with teachers, observations of lesson study cycles of the 2 teams of teachers, classroom observations and focus group discussions with students. This exploratory study has provided us deeper insights into the complexities of LSLC implementation in schools and we will present our initial findings through three papers in this symposium. The first paper will explore the theoretical ideas behind listening and collaborative learning and provide examples in the classroom practice of the teachers. The second paper presents teachers’ understanding of listening pedagogy and collaborative learning as well as the challenges they have in implementing them in their classroom practice. Finally, in the third paper, we examine how the lesson study teams design tasks for their research lessons to facilitate collaborative learning and listening pedagogy in their English and Math classrooms

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Two important ideas advocated in Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC) are listening pedagogy and collaborative learning. Sato (2008) argues that listening pedagogy will lead to dialogic communication for learning and the development of caring relationships and a democratic community in classrooms. It is the listening to other’s voice that facilitates collaboration in learning. Our pilot project requires us as researchers to unpack the meanings of listening pedagogy and collaborative learning for our teachers. We asked the following questions: How do we help teachers move from the usual practice of telling to taking a listening stance in their practice? Positioning listening at the center of teaching works against the common practice of teachers talk, students listen. What does it mean when teachers listen to children’s voices? What are the challenges faced by teachers when they want to listen? How do we help teachers move from cooperative learning to collaborative learning in their group work practice? What are the conditions that will lead to productive collaborative group work? In this presentation, we will share our reading of the literature as well as our effort in working with our teachers to understand the meanings of listening pedagogy and collaborative learning

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

The paper will examine Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC) in the context of different ways that listening pedagogy and collaborative learning are understood and practiced by teachers. In this presentation, we will discuss teachers’ understandings of listening pedagogy and collaborative learning, and how their differing understandings could lead to potential and/or pitfalls in classroom enactment. The results of the study based on individual teachers’ interviews and observations of lesson study cycles provide insights into how different teachers experienced LSLC by articulating the differences in their perceptions of the considerations, consequences, and challenges of listening pedagogy and collaborative learning. These different understandings are used to analyse the classroom observations for insights into the teachers’ meanings and practices of listening and collaboration. We will highlight how the implications of these insights illumine new ways of understanding and implementing LSLC where teachers learn together as a learning community to support student learning through listening pedagogy and collaborative learning

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Designing tasks to facilitate collaborative learning and listening in Math classrooms

Choy Ban Heng, Jason Lai, Christine Kim-Eng Lee, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Atraju Kanan Ramdas, Queenstown Primary School, Singapore.

Tasks are important for developing competencies in mathematics classrooms. Particularly, in lesson study, a well-designed task provides students opportunities to solve problems, discuss ideas, and reason together. Consequently, teachers have to spend time to think about how tasks can be used to facilitate and encourage student thinking during lesson study discussions. However, designing such tasks is challenging and teachers often find it difficult to connect the task with the concept they are teaching. In this presentation, we will present the tasks designed by the mathematics teachers in our study, and examine the design of these tasks in terms of three principles: the content principle, the activity principle, and the documentation principle (Choy, 2018). In addition, we will discuss our insights into the teachers’ collective pedagogical reasoning and action (Goh & Fang, 2017) as they design tasks to facilitate collaborative learning and listening in Math classrooms. Last but not least, we will highlight the challenges our teachers face, suggest how teachers can be supported as they design tasks as part of the lesson study discussions, and draw implications for lesson study practitioners.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Collaborative Learning, Lesson Study for Learning Community, Listening Pedagogy

Future-oriented education: Stimulating 21st Century Skills in StudentDesignTeams using Lesson Study

Workshop322Geert Holwerda, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Education, Netherlands; Melanie Hogenkamp-Schokker, Geert Groteschool, Netherlands

On Fifth 1Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

In a project, so-called Student Design Teams (SDT’s) were deployed in order to stimulate 21st Century Skills (21st CS) of primary education students designing lessons for their younger peers. Stimulating 21st CS is an important topic as to prepare our young students for active participation in today’s and future society. In the SDT’s, students developed innovative lessons for kindergarten students following a Lesson Study cycle.

First results show that the students developed the 21stCS collaboration, communication, critical thinking, and computational thinking. It also showed an improvement of practical and theoretical skills of the participating teacher with regards to working on 21st CS, SDT’s and Lesson Study.

During the workshop knowledge about the results will be shared and discussed. Also a demonstration by primary school students and a hands-on-activity will be done. In the final phase, there is time for discussion and questions.

Summary

In this skill-building workshop, information will be shared about a project stimulating 21st century skills in Student Design-Teams (SDT’s) using Lesson Study.

Background

A consortium under supervision of the lectorate “Educational needs in Inclusive Learning Environments” of Windesheim University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands, pointed at the project question “How will primary school teachers be able to impart 21st century skills to their students, in the context of an SDT in which students develop lessons in which an educational robot will be integrated?” This question was investigated during a project at a primary school in Zwolle.

The SDT’s were deployed in order to stimulate 21st Century Skills (21st CS) of grade 5/6 students designing ICT-rich lessons (involving an educational robot) for their peers in kindergarten. The 21st CS (Trilling & Fadel, 2012) cooperation, communication, critical thinking and computational thinking were stimulated.

The idea of SDT’s is based on (research on) Teacher Design-Teams (TDT’s). This is a way of teacher professionalization in which teachers develop innovative educational products (Binkhorst & Poortman, 2017; Binkhorst, Handelzalts, Poortman, & Van Joolingen, 2015; Handelzalts, 2009; Kolodner et al., 2003). Primary school teachers suggest a need to develop pedagogical knowledge and expertise to impart these 21st CS.

The lesson-development by students was executed according to a Lesson Study-cycle (De Vries, Verhoef, & Goei, 2016; Lewis, 2016). The SDT first formulates a learning question and develop and test their lessons. After this, the SDT executes the lesson. They are observed by other students. After a discussion, feedback is assimilated and reflected. Finally, the lesson will be executed on the target- group.

All SDT-meetings were videotaped, and a selection of students was interviewed. A questionnaire measuring 21st CS was administered before working in SDT’s and after the project. First results show that students developed their skills on cooperation, communication, critical thinking and computational thinking. It also showed an improvement of practical and theoretical skills of the participating teacher with regards to working on 21st CS, SDT’s, Lesson Study and the sustainable integration of ICT in the curriculum of the involved primary school and its school association.

Workshop

The aim of the workshop at WALS2019 is to share knowledge about the context, involvement of 21st CS and the method of Lesson Study during the lesson design and implementation. Results will also be discussed. This will be explained during the introduction phase. Secondly, a demonstration of a designed lesson will be showed. Primary school students themselves will do the demonstration. They tell about the process involving Lesson Study and they reflect on their learning experience. After this demonstration a hands-on-activity with participants on the workshop will be done, stimulating their craftmanship. Participants will be able to practice with the educational robot, and receive and give feedback according to the Lesson Study-principles. In the final phase, there is time for discussion and questions.

Time schedule:

Introduction/explanation/context – approximately 20 minutes

Demonstration by a student – app. 20 minutes

Hands-on activity – app. 30 minutes

Discussion/questions – app. 20 minutes

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
21st century skills, ICT-rich lesson, Student Design Teams (SDT)

Case study of teachers crafting lessons using a learning study model in a South African school

Paper253Susan Brundrit, Anthea Roberts, University of Cape Town, South Africa

On Fifth 3Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Poor performance in mathematics in South African public schools inspired a shift from a conventional form of teacher professional development. An adapted Learning Study model of engagement was piloted by university-based education specialists in two schools. After an introductory theory and content session, the intervention included lesson planning sessions that implemented variation theory, followed by co-teaching and reflection. Participating teachers described a

shift in pedagogic strategies and deepening of content knowledge through the collaborative process. Their enthusiasm for the learning study process was remarkable given the time constraints and conditions imposed by the education system in South African public schools. The form of the teacher professional development was unusual in its focus and intensity as against the more typical generic and dispersed that South African teachers are exposed to. The research is presented in the form of a case study documenting the lesson crafting process and teacher learning.

Summary

The dire state of mathematics in South African public schools has been widely reported. Teacher professional development projects have had limited impacts (Ono & Ferreira, 2010; Bertram, 2011). One of the enduring problems identified is that, with a few exceptions, teachers do not do effective lesson planning or reflection.

The theory that underpinned this research is Learning Study. The theory is a merging of a pedagogic theory, Variation Theory, with a Lesson Study framework for lesson planning, execution and reflection (Pang & Ling, 2012). The research question considers:

The impact that variation theory has on teachers' content and pedagogical content knowledge, and

the impact of collaborative planning and reflection on teachers’ levels of confidence and organisation in the classroom

The research took the form of a pilot study, facilitated by two mathematics education specialists based at the University of Cape Town. The pilot was presented as an accredited short course, of which a large proportion was practical implementation of the principles of Learning Study. Seven teachers from two South African public schools participated in the study. For the duration of the course (6 days) teachers were supported in interpreting and practically applying the theory. This support included collaborative lesson planning, co-teaching, lesson observations and lesson reflections. Each participating teacher was observed daily by a facilitator and/or one or more of the other participants. All sessions and lessons were recorded. A focus group meeting was held three weeks after the intervention, where teachers discussed their responses to questions made available to them prior to the meeting.

The teachers had varying levels of teaching experience; the average level of experience of the three teachers from School A was two years, while that of the four teachers at School B was 12 years. Both schools serve communities wracked by socio-economic challenges. The research made use of the Mathematics Discourse in Instruction (MDI) framework (Venkat & Adler, 2012), shown in Figure 1 below, developed in a South African mathematics research context.

Results of the pilot study are encouraging. All participants demonstrated a greater discernment in their use and choice of resources. Initial response to the intervention was described as engendering a cultural shift through the development of a spirit of collaboration and mutual support. In addition, teachers appeared to be motivated to continue to implement variation theory. They observed that learners were more engaged in the collaboratively-planned lessons, reflected also in test results for the topics covered during the intervention. Furthermore, teachers felt that the intervention was a genuine professional development experience and claim to have extended what they learnt to other spheres of their teaching. All teachers were honest about how their previous practice did not include meaningful lesson preparation and that they were indiscriminately dependent on the prescribed textbook as a resource.

The intensity and context-dependency of this form of teacher professional development makes it an expensive model but worth-while if the teacher learning and learner impact is promising. Research into how to adapt the model to reach more teachers needs to be undertaken.

Learning Studies
Learning study, Mathematics, Teacher professional development

CANCELLED: Lesson Study as Hothouse: Growing Enactments of Culturally Sustaining Pedagogies

Paper386Jennifer Lewis, Wayne State University, Teacher Education Division, United States of America

On Fifth 3Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Educators love to love the notion of “culturally relevant pedagogy” (Ladson-Billings, 1995) and its variants. Teachers working in diverse schools often espouse its value and label what they do as “culturally relevant.” For decades now, “culturally relevant pedagogy” has been promoted as an effective approach to meeting the needs of black and brown children living in poverty. Yet knowing how to enact “culturally relevant teaching” eludes many teachers. Lesson study, with its extended collaboration, focus on student learning, shared lesson design, and in-person live observations of research lessons, provides a hospitable environment for developing teachers’ understanding and enactment of culturally relevant pedagogy.

Summary

Theoretical Framework: Grossman and McDonald have characterized teacher education as heavy on “investigation” and light on “enactment” (2009). They argue that eacher preparation has tended to favor discussion of teaching at some remove from live practice, with few opportunities for teachers to bridge theory and practice. Lesson study can serve as this bridge between theory and practice, and is thus suited to the development of teaching practice that is informed by theory, such as culturally relevant pedagogy. The iterative cycle of curriculum study, lesson planning, lesson enactment, and reflection (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999) can function as a canvas for experimenting with complex ideas such as culturally relevant pedagogy, with the social and professional supports and critical colleagueship afforded by team members, accompanied by the discipline of searching for evidence of student learning. Lesson study brings theory to the test of practice, by means of the “research lesson,” which is the event that brings the fruits of teachers’ collaborative study and planning to a live observed lesson with children. It provides a platform for teachers to design culturally relevant instruction in the company of colleagues and try out innovative practices in a reflective, critically supportive professional forum over time.

Research Question: How can the structures of lesson study be leveraged to promote the understanding and practice of culturally sustaining pedagogies? How is lesson study uniquely positioned for such work?

Methods: Records of practice from three years of lesson study for elementary and middle school mathematics classes were collected from three different lesson study groups in Detroit schools. These records include teachers’ lesson plans, facilitators’ field notes, videotapes of research lessons, videotapes of participating teachers before and after their participation in lesson study, teachers’ observation notes, transcriptions of interviews of participating teachers, administrators, and facilitators, and student work from multiple cycles of lesson study. A research team of lesson study facilitators, researchers, and teachers from inside and outside the lesson study groups analyzed the data, noting instances where issues of potential cultural relevance appeared. The research team engaged the lesson study groups in exploring issues of culturally relevant teaching and pointed out openings where these issues came to the fore; the lesson study teams provided researchers with expansions and suggestions for where these practices might develop in their lesson study plans, research lessons, and reflections.

Results: The lesson study process provided four specific platforms for explicit work on culturally relevant teaching: through the articulation of shared understandings of cultural relevance; the articulation of specific discourse moves and pedagogical structures; the habit of mind to visit issues of critical consciousness in reflections on research lessons, and the categorical attention to cultural relevance in lesson design.

Conclusion and Discussion: A curriculum for the development of culturally relevant pedagogy emerged from the study of the data in this project. In addition, a rubric for enacting and appraising instruction for its cultural relevance will enable teachers to carry out the kind of teaching they believe in and know will be effective for children of color.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Culturally relevant pedagogy, Teacher education

The impact of introducing Lesson Study in EFL education: a case study of Saudi Arabia

Paper77Jawaher Almutairi, Brunel University of London, United Kingdom

On Fifth 3Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Literature suggests that current approaches to teacher development in Saudi Arabia are in need of improvement. Despite an increasing number of Saudi women entering the educational sector as teachers, personal observations as well as literature show that the training of female teachers in Saudi Arabia needs to be improved with a view to updating their professional skillset and empowering them. A participatory action research (PAR) study is proposed to inquire into whether Lesson study, with its emphasis on ongoing collaboration amongst school teachers, reflectivity and evidence-based use of the lesson as a tool for teacher development will be a more sustainable form of learning and empowerment for female Saudi teachers. A sample of female teachers at a school in KSA will be invited to participate in the PAR study, with the two-fold objective being to evaluate the efficacy of LS as a PD tool and to build teacher-capacity for problem-solving.

Summary

In recent decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has taken progressive steps towards increasing the women’s participation not just in education but also in the country’s workforce which represents a significant break from tradition whereby women were restricted from seeking employment under the country’s conservative norms. The move has been made with an eye to preparing female graduates and professionals who can contribute to the indigenization of the country’s workforce alongside male peers, and as more and more women have completed their education and entered the workforce, the impetus for greater professionalization on the part of the employees to meet the requirements of the workplace has increased. The field of teaching is no exception to this, and despite the fact that significant numbers of women are now employed in schools across KSA, literature suggests that their training is inadequate. This is a matter of concern given the close nexus between teachers’ professional development and educational quality identified in research. In this context, professional development of female Saudi teachers may also be seen as a catalyst for their empowerment and transformation. Hence, there is an identifiable need for Saudi female teachers to experience sustainable professional development (PD) that involves participation in and ownership of the PD initiative in addition to an increase in their development as reflective practitioners with a capacity for problem-solving. Amongst the many approaches to professional development of teachers, a notable approach is that of Lesson study which emphasises an evidence-based examination of practice by the teachers through collaborative planning, observation of lessons, reflections on the observed lessons and implementation of proposed revisions arising out of the joint discussions. In the proposed study, Lesson study (LS) will serve as the tool for professional learning, and its efficacy as a tool will be adjudged through a participatory action research design, the different processes of which run parallel to the steps of LS. As the teachers who consent to participate in the study implement Lesson study in their school setting, collaborating on lesson planning, implementation and revision by collecting relevant data and reflecting on what has been observed in the classroom, the participants and I (as researcher) will also collect data about the efficacy of LS for the Saudi teachers. The PAR study has been chosen as an appropriate research approach for the study because literature suggests that in its essence LS is akin to action research for it too encourages cycles of participatory planning, action, reflection and revision with a view to catalyzing change in the participants’ situation or capacity for problem-solving. It is expected that participation in PAR and LS will empower the participating female Saudi teachers and provide them with the tools for ongoing professional development and awareness of their own potential and capabilities. PAR has also been chosen because it levels the power differentials found to exist in conventional research between the researcher and the subjects which is key to creating sustained change once the research project has been completed.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Lesson Study, Professional development, Teacher education

Evidence for lesson plan and teaching process

Paper27Masami Matoba, Tokai Gakuen University, School of Education, Japan

Paris '69Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to clarify how facts gleaned from teaching practice and lesson study become evidence for developing class lessons, based on the case of Shinshiro Municipal Elementary School (SMES) in Shinshiro City in Japan.

Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed for data collection in this study.The author shows that the processing of this data into usable evidence takes place in five steps.

In conclusion, one of the pieces of evidence in the teaching plan is the philosophical idea of the teacher that conflicting opinions should be built into the teaching unit and plan.

Summary

Evidence-based studies began in 1991 as evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the field of medical care, and has spread to the fields of nursing education, applied psychology, and psychotherapy. The term "Evidence-based education" appeared for the first time in a paper from the UK (Davies, 1999). Evidence materials in the educational field are facts that are used for making judgments in teaching practice. The purpose of this study is to clarify how facts gleaned from teaching practice and lesson study become evidence for developing class lessons, based on the case of Shinshiro Municipal Elementary School (SMES) in Shinshiro City in Japan.

The case we analyzed was part of a series of lessons proposed by a teacher of SMES at the Summer Study meetings of the 35th Session of the Social Studies Education Organization (Shakaika no Shoshi wo turanuku Kai) (1992), entitled "4th grade - Our lives, and Roads (a familiar road - the 2nd Tomei) - How to educate children while sympathizing with their wishes and conflicts -".

The analysis consists of the following steps: (1) analysis of the unit and teaching plan, (2) segmentation of the lesson process, (3) selecting and interpreting one typical scene, (4) interpreting the teacher’s explanation, and (5) comparison and reconstruction with the two interpretations (3 and 4).

In conclusion, one of the pieces of evidence in the teaching plan is the philosophical idea of the teacher that conflicting opinions should be built into the teaching unit and plan.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Case study, Evidence, Lesson plan

Lesson Study in South Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Opportunities

Paper385Siyalo Qanya, Department of Basic Education, South Africa; David Sekao, University of Pretoria, Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, South Africa

Paris '69Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Department of Basic Education (DBE) have been collaborating to co-create knowledge and support instructional practices in South Africa. Central to this collaboration is the introduction of the Lesson Study as a vessel for enhancement of teacher agency. Since the inception of the Lesson Study numerous milestones have been achieved. However these achievements were not without challenges that provided us with meaningful learnings and insights in the dynamics and subtleties of the Lesson Study. This paper aims to share our experiences emanating from the implementation of the 5-stage Lesson Study model in South African public schools. As participant observers, our experiences were gleaned from the training sessions and monitoring of the implementation of the Lesson Study. The preliminary findings indicate a significant shift from individualistic practice to embracing collaborative practice especially in the environment where lesson observation was not a norm.

Summary

The practice or context from which the work originates

This study originates from the introduction of Lesson Study in South African public schools following a meaningful and effective collaboration with Japan international Cooperation Agency (JICA). The Lesson Study as a teacher professional development approach (Fujii, 2013:3) is being implemented to enhance the teaching of Mathematics and Natural Sciences in Grades 1-9. Prior to the inception of the Lesson Study, it was not a common practice for teachers to work together to discuss pedagogical content knowledge issues and openly declare/acknowledge their limitations in that regard. The State funds the purchase of textbooks by public schools from a national catalogue of textbooks approved by the Department of Basic Education. It is common practice for teachers to over rely on textbooks to inform the instructional practice.

Relevance for educational practice

Lesson Study provides a space for the South African education system to reflect on issues such as textbooks, Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of teachers, language of teaching and learning, amongst others. Learning from the beginning of the implementation of Lesson Study will help the South African education system avoid the misconceptions outlined by Fujii (2013).

Theoretical framework

In this study we use grounded theory approach within an interpretivist paradigm. The aim is to build a theory on the implementation of Lesson Study in South Africa. We chose grounded theory because it seems to be the most appropriate for responding to the research question. We are therefore guided by the collected data and the analysis thereof to establish what themes seem to be emerging in the implementation processes.

Research question

The research question this study seeks to respond to is: What themes seem to emerge from the implementation of Lesson Study in South Africa? This questions is aimed at determining the “direction” Lesson Study seems to be taking in the South African context. This is particularly important given the clear intentions of introducing this professional teacher development for the teaching of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.

Methods

We employed participant observation and focus group interviews to collect data. Data collection through participant observation entailed the researchers’ own field notes from observed practices, participants’ written and oral text. The focus group interviews were conducted based on the data collected from the researchers’ field notes. These were possible because researchers were, and still are, leading the implementation of Lesson Study in South Africa, albeit from different institutions now.

Findings

Although the inception of the Lesson Study in South African public schools has become a loadstar in terms of enhancing teacher agency. Our observations on the implementation of Lesson Study yielded categories of experiences that could be categorised into achievements, challenges and opportunities.

Conclusion

It was helpful to note that the emerging themes could be categorised as achievements, challenges, and opportunities. The first two categories ‘look back’ in the process whilst the third one ‘looks’ forward. This is important given the intention to maximise benefit from Lesson Study and exploit the possible opportunities it presents.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Lesson, Observation, Practice

Developing Japanese lesson plans based on a foreign program through a collaborative Lesson Study

Paper67Yoshimi Okumura, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Japan

Paris '69Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This presentation addresses the research question “How can we design and practice effective lessons for Japanese students based on foreign lesson programs?” through collaborative study between a researcher and a primary school teacher.

This collaborative study aims to develop and practice “Japanese peaceful lessons” based on a Dutch lesson program implemented at “peaceful schools.” The research method is as follows. First, the researcher introduces the Dutch peaceful lesson program and creates the tentative Japanese framework. Next, the teacher converts the framework to effective lesson plans for children in her classroom in cooperation with the researcher. Finally, the effectiveness of Japanese peaceful lessons is discussed.

As results, the framework for Japanese peaceful lessons and concrete practical examples are presented. It can be said that Japanese lessons can be developed and practiced based on the philosophy of a foreign program through lesson study, rather than just imitating the procedure.

Summary

Innovative education programs developed in the Netherlands have recently drawn much attention in Japan. One such innovation is the peaceful school program, which in the Netherlands is mainly a primary school program to foster social competencies and democratic citizenship. The teaching guidelines have been published in Japan. However, even if a program is effective in a foreign country, its success may not translate in the native country by only imitating the procedure without considering the different culture and context. To implement this kind of a program effectively, it is important to adapt it to the Japanese culture and context. This consideration gave rise to our research question: How can we design and practice effective lessons for Japanese students based on foreign lesson programs?

This presentation addresses the aforementioned research question through a collaborative lesson study between a researcher, Dr. Okumura of Hyogo University of Teacher Education and a teacher, Mrs. Hagino of Befu Primary School. The aim is to develop and practice “Japanese peaceful lessons” based on lesson programs at Dutch “peaceful schools”. The method of collaborative lesson study is as follows. First, the researcher introduces the Dutch peaceful lesson program and creates the tentative Japanese framework by analyzing it from the four viewpoints of educational objectives, teaching and learning materials, teaching and learning processes, and educational evaluation. Next, based on the framework and in cooperation with the researcher, the teacher designs and practices effective lesson plans for children in her classroom. Finally the framework is applied, and the effectiveness of Japanese peaceful lessons is discussed.

As results, the framework for Japanese peaceful lessons and examples of educational practice are presented. In short, the framework consists of educational objectives such as problem solving; teaching and learning materials related to the lives of children; teaching and learning processes of introduction, confirmation of agenda, core activities, reflection and closing; and educational evaluation—that is, evaluation not merely to measure the competencies children acquire, but to grasp the growth of children in order to improve educational activities. As educational practices, a lesson for third-grade children aiming to understand each other is presented.

Finally, we discuss the importance of the teachers themselves acquiring social competencies and democratic citizenship through lesson studies in order to foster the same in children. It can be concluded that it is possible to develop and practice Japanese peaceful lessons based on the philosophy of a foreign program through lesson study, rather than just imitating the procedure.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Collaborative research, Peaceful school program

Building up of online professional learning community for STEM teachers

Paper238Suthida Kareemee, Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology, Thailand

Rome '96Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This research article aims to present guidelines for the establishment of an online professional learning community (PLC) for STEM teachers. The information presented here consists of data from the case studies of 8 private school teachers taught primary level. This operation is due to the results from the study of the elements that were presented at the World Association of Lesson Studies (WALS) 2017 event. The elements of the online PLC as previously studied include: 1) School personnel 2) School environment 3) Technology selected for various operations. Therefore, the result of bringing such elements to practice in the educational institutions found that the teachers changed about teaching and learning in a better direction.

Summary

From the study of the components of the online PLC, it led to the practice of 8 primary school teachers. These people are responsible for teaching in science, mathematics and technology courses from grade 4 - grade 6 so that the experimental group can design STEM instructional unit. The operation begins with grouping the teachers who teach from different subjects but at the same level. Each group, during the meeting, each teacher explains the content that is thought to be designed to manage the learning unit. Then, exchange ideas about the content of the teaching. For example, in this teaching unit, whose subject will start teaching the content first and whom will teach the use of knowledge for problem solving, teaching methods, guidelines for linkages between the content of each subject, etc. The meeting, as in this example, will help teachers to design STEM instructional in accordance with the school's context. After the meeting, the content issue and the date of the teaching and observation of the teaching, the teachers from each group brought the information they had prepared to teach. At the date of observation, each group of teachers will observe the class and take notes in various perspectives that focus on the learner's learning to reflect, such as how the student's learning behavior is, etc. Including the teachersu2019 perspectives who is responsible for teaching, there will be reflections on various issues such as what the result of teaching is? Is it as expected?; Do you think the learning unit that you designed is a STEM learning unit?. If yes, the teacher thinks which part of this unit represents the nature of STEM instructional etc. The notes from this journal will be posted in the online PLC system in order to exchange knowledge and viewpoints between each other. This experiment took approximately 8 months. It was found that such actions resulted in elementary teachers teaching in science, mathematics and technology courses were able to design their own STEM learning units, because the teachers at the same level could talk through such actions. They can see the linkage of the content and can organize teaching that is focused on situations, problems or issues related to daily life. This will result in the learner having a link to knowledge that will lead to meaningful learning and various skills. As well as helping teachers to have friends to consult and provide suggestions on how to connect and integrate between subjects under the theme or topic of each group that has been planned.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Online professional learning community, STEM

Class discussions enabling discerning algebraic properties - developed in learning study iteration

Paper325Martin Nyman, Jenny Fred, Stockholm University, Sweden

Rome '96Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The issue for this paper is to discuss how a lesson can be structured to enable students to engage in creative and reflective discussions about the function for and relation between components in algebraic expressions. The data comes from a learning study in year 7 (age 13) with four lesson iterations. In the iteration process of the research lessons the theory of Learning activity has worked as a tool both to sharpen the design of the parts as well as to improve the staging of the situation inviting the students to engage in algebraic reasoning. Tentative results indicate that what appear to be well known to the students can be used as stepping stones for a situation enabling students to explore algebraic concepts deeper - given that the staging is right.

Summary

The issue for this paper is to discuss how a lesson can be structured to enable students to engage in creative and reflective discussions about the function for and relation between components in algebraic expressions.

In recent years, interest in the communicative elements of mathematics education has increased internationally, and then with a special focus on the development of students' mathematical thinking and their ability to reason, argue and participate in mathematical classroom discussions (Kieran, 2001; Larsson, 2015; Lithner, 2008 ; Radford & Barwell, 2016). Based on the above, questions can be raised about which tools are used and how they can be used to promote content-rich, creative and reflective classroom discussions.

The theory of learning activity (Davydov, 2008) provide four principles on how teaching, tasks and classroom communication can be designed to enable students engage in a theoretical work: (1) the creation of problem situations, (2) the creation and establishment of learning models, (3) the creation or advancement of contradictions and (4) joint reflexive action. The function of a problem situation is to challenge students to be active in a theoretical work where the processing of the problem gives the students the opportunity to work with aspects of the knowledge content that they have not yet distinguished. Learning models should enable the students to theoretically explore the abstract (general) of a given object and further serving as a tool for classroom communication and reflective discussions (Gorbov & Chudinova, 2000). Contradictions are historically developed tensions and the idea of contradictions can be used in the design of problem situations to challenge students to engage in a theoretical work (Davydov, 2008: Zuckerman, 2003). The idea of collective reflections is also central to learning activity, because the students are challenged in their own theoretical thinking by trying to explain someone else’s thoughts and putting it in relation to their own (Zuckerman, 2004).

The aim of this study is to examine how mathematics education can be designed to develop students algebraic thinking regarding discussing algebraic expressions. The research question addressed in this paper is: how can learning activity work as a tool for informing iteration between lessons in a learning study regarding enabling students to discern algebraic properties using reflective whole class discussions?

In this project the data comes from a learning study in year 7 (age 13) with four lesson iterations. Learning study (Marton & Tsui, 2004; Marton, 2015) has been used as an approach for data production. The data consists of video recordings from four research lessons and transcriptions of those.

Tentative results indicate that a problem situation can be successfully staged using combinations of well known conceptual parts, such as a rectangle and an algebraic expression, and thus creating a complex situation enabling students to engage in a theoretical work. The implicit familiarity of the conceptual parts in these combinations, in combination with finely tuned “provocations” from the teacher, forces the students to question trivial understanding of algebraic concepts, thus qualifying the discussion and potentially reaching a deeper understanding.

Research methodology and theoretical underpinnings of Lesson Study
Algebraic properties, Learning activity, Whole class discussions

Creativity support for effective lesson design and curriculum improvement using fam approach

Paper115Masao Mizuno, Tokai Gakuen University, School of Sport and Health Science, Japan

Skylounge 235Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to clarify the essence of the learning process deepened through dialogue and to support effective, creative lesson design using formative assessment cycle.

School teachers in the world need to practice high-quality lessons. Furthermore, we want to realize authentic achievement by restructuring lessons for intellectual quality. Thus, we proposed FAM approach and conducted practical training at workshops and seminars for teachers to improve their lessons for Manabiai or Neriage. FAM means Formative Assessment Matrix for lesson design.

In this presentation, an elementary school lesson in Mongolia has selected as a case study. The teacher in Mongolia aimed at realizing Connecting. As a result, the teacher sought the way of teaching that students would express their ideas and connect the ideas. The teachers can re-examine the concept of teaching and learning. FAM approach relates to all aspects of lesson studies and helps to promote improvements.

Summary

The purpose of this research is to clarify the essence of the learning process deepened through dialogue and to support effective, creative lesson design using formative assessment cycle.

School teachers in the world need to practice high-quality lessons for developing student competency. In Japan, we have called dialogical and deeper learning processes Manabiai.

Furthermore, we want to realize authentic achievement by restructuring lessons for intellectual quality (Newmann & Wehlage, 1995). These knowledge-building and refining processes have called Neriage in Japan.

However, it is not easy for a teacher to guide such a knowledge-building type of lessons. Therefore, many teachers want to know methods or tools to improve their lessons for Manabiai or Neriage.

Thus, we proposed FAM approach and conducted practical training at workshops and seminars for teachers in Japan since 2016. FAM means Formative Assessment Matrix for lesson design.

There are three requirements for authentic achievement.

1 Educational goal leading to high-quality learning,

2 Learning tasks addressing central ideas of a topic or discipline with enough thoroughness to explore connections and relationships and to produce relatively complex understandings.

3 Student-centered, collaborative problem-solving activities

In the knowledge building lesson, collective thought processes proceed while switching back and forth between 3 main thought processes.

1 Knowing: The process of learning, thinking in addressing a task, problem, or issue, and presenting various ideas.

2 Connecting: The process of engaging in dialogues with the teacher and students' peers in a way that builds an improved and shared understanding of ideas or topics.

3 Higher order thinking: The process of manipulating information and ideas by synthesizing, generalizing, hypothesizing, or arriving at conclusions, that produce new meaning for them, and applying them to different aspects.

FAM approach has three aspects.

1 Before the lesson, writing FAM helps the teacher to develop the lesson plans that relate students' knowledge and thoughts and deepen their thoughts.

2 In the lesson, students can recognize the aim of this lesson by reading the FAM. Other teachers who observe the lesson will also read this FAM and understand the intent of the lesson design. The students' self-assessment according to the FAM and describe their reflection about the lesson.

3 In the post-lesson conference, the teachers will refer to FAM of that lesson and discuss how students' learning was, and how students' learning differed from the teacher's intention.

In this presentation, an elementary school lesson in Mongolia has selected as a case study for analyzing the impact of FAM approach to lesson design improvements and learning achievement.

To establish the view of the lesson that the lesson's main character is students, the teacher and researchers in Mongolia first aimed at realizing Connecting. The teacher has severely shaken the view of the lesson. As a result, she sought the way of teaching that students would express their ideas and promote the connection between the students' ideas.

Teachers can re-examine their concept of teaching and learning. FAM approach relates to all aspects of lesson studies and helps to promote improvements.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Curriculum Improvement, Effective Lesson Design, Formative Assessment

Preparing teachers for high-level tasks

Paper360Whye Leong Benjamin Yeong, Bedok South Secondary School, Singapore

Skylounge 235Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

Studies have found that for students to do well in mathematics, they need to be engaged with tasks that are of high levels of cognitive thinking and reasoning. For such an engagement to happen, teachers will need to be able to create and conduct such a task. This calls for a pradigm shift among the teachers. To ease such a transition, a professional learning community (PLC) was formed. This PLC takes concrete steps to remove the teachers’ initial apprehensions, and finally to be able to conduct such lessons with confidence. The greatest effect on student learning happens when teachers takes charge of their own teaching.

Summary

1. The practice or context

According to Smith, Margaret and Mary (1998), it was found that the extent to which tasks were set up and implemented in ways that engaged students in high levels of cognitive thinking and reasoning will give the highest learning gains on a mathematics-performance assessment. This finding supports the position that the nature of the tasks to which students are exposed determines what students learn.

It further suggests that if the ultimate goal is to have students develop the capacity to think, reason and problem solve, it is important to start with high-level, cognitively complex tasks. Even though selecting and setting up a high-level task well does not guarantee students’ engagement at a high level, but it appears to be a necessary condition, since low-level tasks almost never result in high-level of engagement.

2. Relevance

For a school jumping onto this wagon of giving high-level task, students’ engagement is not the only implication, it will also mean that teachers will have to make a mindset shift towards a more process-based approach. Teachers will have to know and understand high-level task and also increase their knowledge of classroom based factors that maintain pupils’ high level engagement.

To develop teachers’ understanding of the high-level task that they are to teach, careful attention must be given to identifying the mathematics that they need in order to teach effectively, articulating the ways in which they must use it in practice and what that implies for the students and themselves. This sort of attention is crucial to ensure that teachers are able to engage the students well.

3. Theoretical framework

Teacher professional learning communities (PLCs) in Singapore was introduced by former Minster of Education, Mr Ng Eng Hen (2009) to help hone “a world-class education service” by “strengthening teacher expertise”. It is identified as one of the professional support networks introduced to build teacher professionalism. Through participating in PLCs, teachers come together to co-create knowledge, develop knowledge expertise and advance professional growth as a community. (Lee, Tay & Hong, 2015)

4. Research question

How to bring about the paradigm shift of teachers?

5. Method(s)

Experiential Learning

As adult learners (Teachers), we would want to make sense of our experiences; we learn the best by getting involved.

6. Results

Coming up with a high-level task as well as conducting it is daunting to the Teachers. Through the PLC sessions, teachers took part in the discussion for the initial task and witnessed the birth of the lesson. So they could see for themselves from creation of the high-level task to the conduct of the lesson. This gave them an overview of what is expected. These experiences gave them more confidence in coming up with a task, and its lesson plan.

7. Conclusion and discussion

With the experiences gained through these sessions of PLCs and the conduct of the planned lessons, teachers are more ready to engage the students in high-level cognitive tasks so that they could find learning mathematics meaningful and fruitful.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Development, Mathematics, Task

The Challenge for the lesson design innovation through the constant collaboration; a case study

Paper392Masami Kawano, Joetsu University of Education, Graduate school of Education, Japan

Skylounge 235Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The aim of this research is to examine how teachers and researchers collaborate for lesson innovation. This study conducts a case study. I describe two processes in this case. One is how a younger teacher have changed his lessons’ design. The other is what and how a senior teacher and a researcher involved and collaborated for supporting the younger. In this case, we have continual and repeated observation and discussion till the day of the research lesson with knowledgeable others and many participants. Finally, I discuss how we collaborate for sustainable lesson innovation and what the role of the researchers is.

Summary

The aim of this presentation is to discuss the collaboration between teachers and researchers, focusing on the role of researchers. This study conducts a case study. I describe two processes in continual Lesson Study. One is how a younger teacher who would have a research lesson have changed his lessons’ design into a math lesson with hands-on and contexts of pupils’ learning. The other is what and how a senior teacher and a researcher involved and collaborated for supporting the younger. In this case, we have continual and repeated observation and discussion till the day of the research lesson with knowledgeable others and many participants. The description of the process was made from the fieldnote of lesson observation and discussions. And then the photo record of blackboard is also used for the comparison to describe the change. Finally, I discuss what the role of researchers is for sustinable Lesson Study.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Collaboration between teachers and researchers, The change of lesson design

Coaching approach as a tool of introducing lesson study into practice of secondary schools

Paper104Liliya Zhurba, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools, Center of Excellence, Kazakhstan

Straatsburg '88Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The research is focused on one of the activity fields of the Centre of excellence in the Republic of Kazakhstan; the main role of the organization is to provide teacher professional development, among other methodological approaches through Lesson Study. The aim of the research is to explore ways, which were used by the teacher trainers of the Centre of excellence to sustain secondary school teachers who were going to take initial steps in implementing Lesson Study in their schools. The research also presents methods, which the teacher trainers used to identify possible barriers and obstacles which secondary school teachers might come across in the process of implementing Lesson Study. The findings summarize that one of such methods, which has proven its effectiveness in presenting the Lesson Study approach to secondary school teachers, is coaching approach, by means of which teachers improve data collection skills and professional reflection.

Summary

The context from which the work originated1. The Lesson study approach is a comparatively new phenomenon for Kazakhstani schools. In 2012 an innovative teacher-training program was initiated by the Centre of excellence. The program was developed jointly by the Centre of excellence and the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. Lesson Study was presented to Kazakhstani teachers as an integral part of the in-service teacher training programme and an effective instrument for improving teacher instruction.

2. Theoretical framework. Akihico Takahashi (2014), (2015) mentioned, that when implemented outside Japan, Lesson study didn’t always achieve its full effectiveness; he presumed, that one of the reasons which could diminish Lesson Study effectiveness was either lack or inefficiency of support provided from outside the Lesson Study group. In Kazakhstan, the teacher trainers, who have been responsible for providing both while-training and post-training support for teacher graduates of the program from the very first days of its introduction, took on a role of external advisors or external experts (Pete Dudley, 2011) for the schools where Lesson Study was being launched. However, despite the comprehensive support, the trainers of the Center of excellence occasionally faced unjustifiably low motivation from the teachers, who were expected to implement Lesson Study in their schools. In order to boost training effectiveness and stimulate trainees motivation to implement Lesson Study, the principles of andragogy were used. According to Malcolm Knowles (1980), the best professional training practices for adults are those, which are based on their professional and life experience. The trainers of the Centre of excellence have chosen coaching approach as the one which provoked teacher reflection on previous experience and convinced them to use Lesson Study as a tool for high-quality teaching. Coaching approach presumes responding to trainees’ expectations, such as the earliest application of acquired knowledge into teaching practice so that teachers could organize Lesson Study teaching groups and become their leaders soon after their training was finished.

Results.As the teacher-trainers were eager to build their training in such a way as to ensure maximum participation of the trained teachers in the Lesson Study process, it makes clear, that the growing proportion of the number of teachers who are involved in Lesson Study can be the best testimony to the benefits of the training the teachers have undertaken. This proportion is keeping up steadily. The trainers use post-course monitoring in order to find out and solve any possible problems the teachers may come across.

Conclusion.Teaching pedagogical staff can be very challenging when it’s all about changing not only pedagogical approaches of a teacher but also their pedagogical convictions, which can be really very painful and discouraging for a teacher (Frank Pajares, 1992). No one would gladly admit that they have made mistakes in their previous pedagogical practice. One of the roles of a teacher trainer is to support teachers in their strive to make changes not only concerning their own pedagogical career but also in becoming a scaffolder in changing the practice of their colleagues.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Coaching, External expert, Teaching adult learners

Designing visualization tools for lesson study based on data from inquiry-based learning

Paper243Takehiro Wakimoto, Yokohama National University, Japan; Kaori Kanematsu, Wakasa High School, Japan

Straatsburg '88Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

In this research, we designed tools for lesson study based on the data of inquiry-based learning. In particular, we developed tools that visualize the data from class reflections by students and teachers in order to effectively improve lessons. We collected data from both teachers and students using questionnaires and students’ work to understand their classroom behavior, learning perspective, and students’ achievements. By utilizing the tools in the lesson study, we can encourage reflections and interactions, leading to an effective lesson improvement. This is ongoing research, and we have been developing the questionnaire and visualization tools in Wakasa High School, in which unique inquiry-based learning is being implemented. In this research, we report on the inquiry-based learning being put into practice in this school. We also discuss the questionnaire, visualization tool, and design of the lesson study where the tools are being utilized.

Summary

Today’s students must understand their own strengths and weaknesses, set goals, and work on said goals while cooperating with other students. Thus, it is essential to nurture high-level abilities and skills for students to think, make decisions, and express themselves. Inquiry-based learning is effective for developing those abilities and skills (Darling-Hammond et al. 2008).

Lesson study plays an important role in lesson improvement using inquiry-based learning. Lesson study has been conducted for many years (Arani et al. 2010) and has been found to be highly valuable in improving lessons using inquiry-based learning. In a class using inquiry-based learning, students tend to take a longer time to solve a particular problem than they do in other classes. Because of that, it is necessary to examine student outcomes from a long-term perspective with a lesson study on inquiry-based learning. Thus, the data on students’ everyday actions and work in the lesson are essential. IR (Institutional Research), where teachers evaluate students’ educational activities and improve their achievement based on the students’ study records, has been actively implemented in Japan (Matsuda & Watanabe 2017).

In addition, it is important to raise awareness of students’ actions and achievements, as well as teachers’ intentions and thoughts in lesson reflection, and consider the links between them (Korthagen et al. 2001). However, some teachers hold unconscious teaching beliefs (Pajares 1992). In addition, the knowledge and experience of teachers are rarely put into words, and thus cannot be shared (Watanabe 2017), so some support should be provided.

In this research, we attempt to visualize the data obtained from both students’ and teachers’ sides of the stated issue. The collected data were used to develop tools to visualize classroom behaviors and learning perspectives and design a lesson study where those tools could be utilized. These tools enable us to see the discrepancies between students’ and teachers’ behaviors and awareness. In this way, we can encourage teachers’ lesson reflections and interactions with other teachers, leading to a more effective lesson improvement.

This research was implemented in Fukui Prefectural Wakasa High School. The school is part of OECD Innovative Schools Network 2.0 and is working on the development of global human resources; it has been practicing inquiry-based learning. We currently are designing a questionnaire by observing the lessons and recording and listing the actions of teachers and students. Perspectives toward learning and lessons are also included in the questionnaire. This is ongoing research, and we are in the process of finalizing the questionnaire and designing the visualization tools and the lesson study. In the conference, we will represent how inquiry-based learning is being implemented in Wakasa High School. We will also report on the contents of the questionnaire, tools, and lesson study, based on the implementation.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Inquiry-based learning, Visualization tools for lesson study

The effects of video-based Lesson Study on promoting productive lesson analysis

Paper63Yang Lin, The University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Education, China

Straatsburg '88Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of reviewing video on teachers’ practices of lesson analysis in lesson study (LS). A primary mathematics LS group in Beijing conducted one traditional LS and one video-based LS without external facilitation. The post-lesson discussions were coded and compared. Interview data and teachers’ observation recordings were collected as well. Results showed that teachers attended to and interpreted student mathematics thinking more in video-based LS. Meanwhile, teachers were more likely to reason for their pedagogical suggestions in video-based LS. During the second observation through video, teachers shifted attention to student learning, collected more detailed information, reflected on the problematic episodes attentively and made their initial evaluation or suggestions more detailed. This study advances research on approaches to make up for teachers’ deficiencies in lesson observation and analysis in LS and has practical implications for applying video to innovate LS practices to achieve effective teacher learning.

Summary

Productive lesson analysis is important for the success of lesson study (LS). There is a consensus that productive mathematics lesson analysis should be student-centred and evidence-based (Santagata & Angelici, 2010). However, not all LS groups can conduct effective lesson analysis (Bocala, 2015). Taking China as an example, teachers tend to focus on teaching and make pedagogical decisions based on experts’ experience, while student learning is neglected in lesson analysis (Gu & Gu, 2016; Tang & Shao, 2014). Therefore, it’s necessary to seek way to improve teachers’ LS practice. Video has been used widely in teacher learning programs as substitute of live classroom observation and participants who using video with researchers’ facilitation reported enhanced analytical abilities (Sherin & van Es, 2009; Pehmer, Gröschner & Seidel, 2015). However, it’s unknown whether reviewing video on teachers’ own as a supplement of live observation can promote productive lesson analysis in LS. Therefore, this study examined the following research questions: Were there any differences in teachers’ lesson analysis between traditional LS and video-based LS? If yes, how did video bring about these differences?

A group of four 5th-grade mathematics teachers from a primary school in Beijing, China participated in this study. The LS group conducted one traditional LS and one video-based LS in autumn term, 2018. In video-based LS, teachers reviewed the classroom video individually before group discussion. Teachers’ post-lesson discussions were transcribed and coded in three aspects: attending, analyzing and responding (Barnhart & van Es, 2015). Interviews were conducted to investigate teachers’ experience and perception of effects of reviewing video on their lesson analysis. Teachers’ observation records were also collected to see what teachers noticed in live classroom.

Comparison of the post-lesson discussion showed that teachers conducted more student-centred and evidence-based analysis in video-based LS. The percentages of teachers’ ideas that attending to student learning, interpreting student mathematics understanding and proposing instructional suggestions with arguments all increased in video-based LS. Interviews data and observation records revealed that teachers primarily focused on the coherency of instructional activities and demonstrating teacher’s words when observing the lesson for the first time. They collected more information of students’ answers and interpreted them when reviewing video. Meanwhile, when reviewing video, teachers identified the essential problems of teaching through analysing the problematic episodes attentively, and they elaborated and justified their first-hand evaluation or suggestions.

It’s encouraging to see teachers analysing lesson in a more student-centred and evidence-based way through reviewing classroom video. One possible explanation is that teachers’ selective attention is limited and they cannot take account of both teaching and learning in live classroom observation. During video review, teachers spare their attention to student learning and newly collected information provokes their discussion of student learning. Besides, teachers may only form rude thoughts of the lesson after live classroom observation. Video review offered necessary individual space for teachers to examine the issues they haven’t been able to think over and make their ideas more elaborated so that they can reason for their ideas in group discussion.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Individual reflection, Lesson analysis competence, Video-based Lesson Study

Enhancing teachers’ neurodevelopmental conditions awareness for inclusive teaching

Symposium272Linda Petersson, Malmö University, Sweden; Emma Leifler, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Johanna Lüddeckens, Malmö University, Sweden

Tokio '95Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

The overall aim of this symposium is to contribute with new knowledge about teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive teaching of students with Neurodevelopmental conditions (NDC) from pre-school to upper secondary school before, and after Lesson study interventions.The theoretical framework in the studies differs, but assumptions from pragmatism (James & Thayer, 1975) are used as an overall theoretical lens. The studies follow a lesson study model, and take a standpoint in teachers’ attitudes and decisions as having an impact on practical consequences and acting. By enhancing the awareness of teachers’ understanding of how the students experience their school situation, the chance to make suitable changes for a positive learning experience is greater. In this symposium, three examples of how to enhance teachers’ competence and attitudes to teach students with NDC in inclusive settings are presented. The school levels are pre-school, elementary and secondary schools.

Summary

Enhancing Teachers’ Neurodevelopmental Conditions Awareness for Inclusive teaching – from pre-school to upper secondary school

Chair and organizer: Professor Mona Holmqvist, Malmö University, Sweden

Discussant: Dr Peter Dudley, University of Cambridge, Great Britain

Presentations:

1. Linda Petersson, Malmö University & The National Agency for Special Needs Education ans Schools (SPSM), Sweden:

Using lesson study to enhance pre-school teachers' Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) awareness.

2. Emma Leifler, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden:

Elementary School Teachers’ capacity to create inclusive learning environments for students with Neurodevelopmental conditions (NDC)

3. Johanna Lüddeckens, Malmö University, Sweden:

Enhancing teachers’ awareness of Neurodevelopmental conditions (NDC) by the use of web-based instruction

In this symposium, research conducted within a four-year long national PhD-program for in total 12 teacher educators, Special Education for Teacher Educators (SET), funded by the Swedish Research Council (grant no. 2017-06039) is presented. The overall aim is to contribute with new knowledge about teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive teaching of students with Neurodevelopmental conditions (NDC) from pre-school to upper secondary school before and after Lesson study interventions. In Sweden, where this research takes place, more than half of all special educational needs (SEN) teachers will retire within ten years. The loss of special educational needs (SEN) teacher is particularly difficult to solve within the ordinary teacher training. This also means a shortage of researchers in the field of special education, at the same time as a national objective securing education for all teacher about NDC is established. In this symposium, three examples of how to enhance teachers’ competence and attitudes to teach students with NDC in inclusive settings are presented. The school levels are pre-school, elementary and secondary schools. The object of learning (Holmqvist, 2011) is NDC awareness, defined as an enhanced understanding of the students’ perspectives on instruction and educational environments. All studies use Lesson study (Lewis, 2000; Munthe, Helgevold & Bjuland, 2015) as method, with one cycle in each study. Each cycle starts with defining the object of learning in a group of senior researchers and doctoral students. The learners are teachers, who participate in professional development interventions, either live, at campus or using web-produced learning materials. The educators are the doctoral students, who enact the instruction and measure its eventual effect by pre, post and delayed post-tests. The theoretical framework in the studies differs, but assumptions from pragmatism (James & Thayer, 1975) are used as an overall theoretical lens. The studies take a standpoint in teachers’ attitudes and decisions as having an impact on practical consequences and acting. By enhancing the awareness of teachers’ understanding of how the students experience their school situation, the chance to make suitable changes for a positive learning experience is greater.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Early education for children between 0 and 5 years is voluntary in Sweden, approximately 84% attend pre-school (The National Agency for Education, 2017). As children with disabilities are placed in regular preschools, pre-school teachers need to be prepared to teach children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). This study aims to enhance preschool teachers’ awareness of how to create inclusive settings for children with ASC in pre-school. The method is Lesson Study, including pre-test, intervention with three seminars, post-test, and delayed post-test. 18 pre-school teachers participated. Data consists of a recorded group interview, audio-recorded interventions, tests with nine close-ended questions (Likert-scale), and seven open-ended questions with two-word alternatives. Mixed-method design was used for the analysis (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). Findings show preschool teachers need more professional development about ASC, 50 % (9) very strongly agree and 38, 9 % (7) strongly agree, to design inclusive settings for children with ASC. Their changed awareness after the intervention were captured through the analysis of the audio recording during the group discussions, asked to discuss ‘which changes do you think your preschool should make to be more inclusive’. The results contribute to design powerful professional development for pre-school teachers teaching children with ASC.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

Pre-service training in Sweden do not provide training about neurodevelopmental conditions, NDC, despite the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) 0, 62 - 0, 70 % and ADHD 3-7%. This study investigates the effectiveness of a three-hour professional development program based on lesson study methodology. The aim of the study is to explore in what way a short professional development program affect teachers’ readiness to adjust the learning environment for increased inclusive education. The theoretical framework used is pragmatism (James & Thayer, 1975). Problems and questions are starting points for learning (Dewey, 1963). It is hypothesized that the intervention will improve teacher knowledge. The research questions are: 1. In what way does a short professional development program enhance teachers’ readiness to create inclusive learning environment for students with NDC?, and 2. What changes in differences of self-perceived ability can be found after the intervention? Elementary school teachers (n=44) from three different schools participated. Effectiveness was measured using a pre-test/post-test within-subjects design. Outcome measures were a knowledge questionnaire. The result points out an increase of readiness from 28% to 71% in post-test. Regarding self-perceived ability, an increase from 14% to 43% was found.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

The aim of this intervention is to enhance teachers’ awareness of students’ with neurodevelopmental conditions (NDC) perspective on their school situation. A questionnaire designed as a pre- and a posttest were distributed as a web-based presentation, and 18 teachers participated in the intervention. The teachers studied a video based lecture (25 minutes), including narrates of schooling by youths with NDC. The results show that 7 (38.9 %) of the teachers totally agreed that the relationship with a student is crucial for the students learning at the pre-test, while 12 teachers (66.7 %) totally agreed at the post-test. Regarding the statement about education not being available to students with disabilities being discriminating, 9 teachers (50 %) totally agree at the post-test, while 14 teachers (77.8 %) totally agreed at the post-test. The results show that web-based intervention significantly raised the awareness of the teachers’ relational competence as well as education not being available to students with disabilities being discriminating. It identifies whether and to what extent teachers’ change their perspectives after studying the information material from a student perspective and verifies the importance of increased teacher awareness and teacher attitudes in the development of available practices for students with NDC (Baines, 2012; Humphrey & Symes, 2014; Lamb, Fairbank & Aldous, 2016).

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Inclusive education, Neurodevelopmental conditions awareness, Special Didactics

Talking about learning: a dialogic approach to learning through lesson study in teacher education

Symposium194Hubert Gruber, Martina Neumüller, University College of Teacher Education Lower Austria, Austria; Karin Eckert, Volksschule, Austria; Monika Prenner, University College of Teacher Education Lower Austria, , Austria

Wenen '95Tue 14:35 - 16:05

Abstract

A dialogic approach to teaching and learning uses collaborative talk for finding out details about teaching and learning which are usually uncovered. It involves ongoing communication between teachers and students, not just teacher presentation. In teacher education through lesson study, mentors and knowledgeable others are part of this dialogue, which becomes multidimensional through its simultaneous focus on teacher and student learning.

This symposium shows how data from analog and digital observations is triangulated with insights from intensive dialogue between mentors, student teachers, students and knowledgeable others. Three scenarios from music, sports and mathematics education describe how lesson study groups managed to elicit multiple perspectives on learning and to engage with newly developing ideas on teaching and learning. An overt focus on dialogue, as adopted by the three lesson study teams, has shown to create more sustainable learning through making learning processes explicit. Examples from teacher and learner perspective are presented.

Summary

This symposium presents three lesson study projects carried out in the context of initial teacher education. It describes the adoption of a dialogic approach to teaching and learning through collaborative planning, reflection and classroom discussion. The three papers aim to shed light on processes of teaching and learning which are usually uncovered.

Theoretical considerations take Didactic Design Patterns (Mall, Spychiger, Bird, & Zerlik, 2016), the discussion of power and distance in commutation and collaboration (Grundy, 2000; Lewin, 1935; Lewin, 1948) as well as psycholinguistic (Alexander, 2015; Alexander, 2018; Mercer, 2000) and assessment perspectives (Wiliam, 2011) into consideration.

The three papers share the view on students’ learning through opportunities for team and classroom dialogue in extended and varied ways. They describe how stunt teachers, experienced teachers and learners explore the limits of their own understanding through practising new ways of using language as a tool for constructing knowledge.

Paper 1 explores the insights into the work of professional learning communities and their efforts to increase dialogue in music education. It describes how teacher trainers, functioning as knowledgeable others, contribute new ideas and clarify the point and purpose of activities in lesson study.

Paper 2 sheds light on how the work of teacher trainers in the development of 'models' for explicit ways of using teacher language in physical education lessons. It demonstrates, how student teachers were helped to grasp new, professional ways of describing processes in physical education. Moreover, it describes the effects of adding digital communication through video input to the teacher’s classroom talk in order to create effective classroom management in Parcouring, a sport that engages students in overcoming various obstacles during a competition.

Paper 3 presents a lesson study carried out in primary teacher education. It focuses on data collected through analog and digital observation making use of eye-tracking goggles and the subsequent dialogic generation of criteria for data an analysis. The latter uncovered four learning processes in a case study student’s learning and his meaning making, which was severely impaired by linguistic problems. The subsequent negotiation of meaning and the necessary changes in teacher language are discussed.

Chair: Elisabeth Mürwald-Scheifinger

Discussant: Claudia Mewald

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

The purpose of this paper is to exhibit the findings from a lesson study in musical education. It attempts to highlight that music education can sustainably expand and improve the dialogical space for teaching and learning in teacher education through lesson study.

A project called "Lesson Study: Music in Dialogue” included a series of meetings and lessons fostering quality collaboration between lecturers, student teachers, teaching practice mentors and students. Within the established lesson study groups, the space for cooperation and dialogue widened the perception of learning and it created interest in the work experience and expertise of one another. Much of the results can be compared with insights found in the principles of "Community of Practice" (Lave, Wenger 1991; Wenger, McDermott, Snyder, 2002), and in "Professional Communities" (Schrittesser, 2004).The results from this study demonstrate sustainable effects on the work with student teachers as well as students. The dialogical principle developed through this study (Gruber, 2012) plays a central and important role in connecting learning in music- and art-related processes with teacher and learner talk. It provides new insights into questions of organisation and implementation, as well as scientific and didactic support in professional learning communities through lesson study.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

Parkouring, the fast and efficient way to overcome obstacles in urban environments, is a sport that attracts young people in particular. It can be practised with little effort in the city and country, as it also looks “cool.” This aesthetic gives a new appeal to the ordinary gymnastic equipment in the gymnasium, as well as to the students’ motivation for gymnastics (Krick & Walther 2014). This trending sport encourages and fosters students' coordination skills and it motivates them. When planning lessons in physical education, the time factor is a complex task for new teachers. This lesson study thus emphasised time management. A mentor and two student teachers observed students with the help of an observation protocol. This protocol took into consideration the coordinating abilities and motivation of the students. In dialogic discussions including all partners of the lesson study, observations were discussed. A second lesson study cycle implemented changes in time management and in teaching coordinative skills. Various movement stations were implemented in varied ways in order to re-observe the essential aspects of learning. In order to make the learning success visible and sustainable, a teaching video created during the second research lesson will be presented.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Within the framework of a master’s thesis, the observable subject-specific learning processes of a student in a 4th grade primary school were analysed. A lesson study using analog non-participant and digital participant observation was conducted to focus on the student’s learning. In a first lesson study cycle, a teacher wearing eye-tracking goggles collected data from her perspective. During the first viewing of the video footage, inductive categories were formed through dialogic discussion of the teacher, her MA supervisor and a lesson study facilitator. Four crucial areas of competence, which are also supported by specialist literature, were identified to be critical elements to be observed in the second cycle. The subsequent analysis and interpretation of data showed that the student went through learning processes in all four areas of competence during the lesson, some of which appeared parallel to each other. However, difficulties arose in regards to the correct use of the specialist vocabulary and when verbalizing a task. The findings of the evaluated data formed the basis for the planning of the third cycle which included data collection with the student collecting digital data through wearing eye-tracking goggles. Preliminary results from this cycle as well as lesson sequences will presented.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Dialogic Approach, Teaching Practice

16:35 - 18:05 Concurrent session 3

Preview of WALS 2020 in San Francisco: Using school-wide Lesson Study to accelerate the learning of underserved students

Featured symposium410Nora Houseman, Karen Cortez, Lauren Goss, Sara Liebert, San Francisco Unified School District, United States of America

Amsterdam '72Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) currently supports Lesson Study through its Teacher Leader Fellowship program, a leadership and professional learning opportunity jointly funded by the district (SFUSD) and local taxpayers.  As a result of this, Lesson Study has steadily grown as an established professional development practice for teachers throughout the district. Starting in 2015 Lesson Study teams interested in building school-wide improvement initiated a School-wide Lesson Study model to explore the use of lesson study as a school change lever and as the primary professional learning structure at 5 public schools seeking to close the opportunity gap amongst historically underserved students.

General summary

In School-wide Lesson Study, teachers throughout a school focus on a long-term vision for student learning and use Lesson Study to test and refine ideas to bring that vision to life. Through cycles of Lesson Study across grade levels, all centered on careful observation of students, teachers make sense of the content standards and refine their enactment of them, warranted by observation of their own students’ learning.  After internal study, schools may also choose to share their work in public research lessons­–attended by educators from other schools and regions who can observe lessons, obtain copies of lesson plans and other materials, question teachers about the school practices that lie behind the observed instruction, see records of students’ responses to prior lessons of the unit, and hear about what was tried and discarded.

 

During this session, you will learn how the District and school sites provides a stable base to support and nurture the complex work of Lesson Study. Key ideas and lessons learned will allow others to build such a model in their own settings.

 

Teacher Leaders integral to building the School-wide Lesson Study at their site will share how they grew Lesson Study from one team to school-wide involvement.  You will see examples of the flow back and forth across three types of activity: working as a whole staff; working in Lesson Study teams; and working daily in classrooms.  Challenges addressed at the schools will also be discussed, including how to interest and involve teachers who are initially reluctant or too busy; and how to select, spread and develop important learnings from the Lesson Study cycle across classrooms.

 

Equity is central to Lesson Study work in San Francisco and has supported improvement of learning for students who are historically underserved.  An up-close view of the changes in pedagogy and instructional routines will be provided, using video and student work.

 

Teachers and schools have leveraged the power of a cross-school network to structure and deepen their Lesson Study work.  Network activities and tools that have allowed the work to spread and improve will be introduced, including: cross-site observations; collaboration between Teacher Leader Fellows to learn from the successes and challenges across schools; sharing planning templates and learnings; co-hosting onboarding and professional development events as well as open house public research lessons.

 

Following the presentations, there will be time allotted for a Q&A. There will also be a brief overview highlighting some of the school experiences you can expect to participate in during WALS 2020 San Francisco.

Importing Lesson Study: Reality & Challenges in Paradigm Shift of Teaching Research Group in China

Symposium366Miao Xu, Lin Tang, Shixu Tian, Jiahui Huang, Beijing Normal University, China

Belgrado '73Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This symposium will portray the imports of Lesson Study as a paradigm shift in Chinese teaching research group. Based on university-school partnership to facilitate teacher professional development in Hebei Province, China. As Stigler and Hiebert (2016) mention, when educators try to import lesson study’s cultural routine into a new environment, it is found new attempts are often misconstrued and unsustainable. With such reminder, three papers of this symposium will focus on three main segments of LS, namely question proposing, data collection, and report writing, to identify problems and analyze factors behind. In the final paper, these questions are summarized, analyzed and discussed with Per Dalin’s (2011) technology-political-cultural framework.

Summary

Chair: XU Miao, Discussant: SONG Huan

Lesson study has been popularized in China for nearly 20 years (Guiqing An, 2014). However, as Stigler and Hiebert (2016) concerned, it is harder than we think to import lesson study developed in Japanese culture and educational system into countries with different cultures and different systems. In the context of China’s culture and system, teaching research (Jiaoyan) as a traditional paradigm for supervising and improving teachers’ teaching has a longer history than lesson study (Yan Hu, 2018). It accelerates teachers in schools to form a good cooperative culture and build up a research community. Undoubtedly, such an open and sturdy paradigm is beneficial to the development of the lesson study, but at the same time, under its deep imprint, it has also created some resistance to lesson study. Therefore, teachers face many difficulties and challenges in many aspects: From focusing on teachers’ behaviour to students’ performance, from emphasizing experience to evidence, from knowledge transfer to knowledge generation. Therefore, this symposium will discuss the reality and challenges of teachers carrying out the lesson study in the context of teaching research in China. Specifically, in this symposium, there will be a detailed analysis from the teachers’ points of view in three aspects: The illustration of research questions, the collection of data, and the writing of lesson study reports. At last, it will put forward some suggestions on how to solve the corresponding dilemma at the level of U-S partnership.

The case project in Hebei Province selected by the study began in 2013 with the initial vision of developing the construction of the school’s characteristic curriculum. Now, driven by school leaders and university experts, it has turned to promoting the professional development of teachers and lesson study on a large scale. At present, the schools in this project have begun to try to integrate lesson study with the original teaching research, so as to promote teachers from concentrating on their own teaching to caring about students’ learning. The first three papers of this symposium focus on three core procedures of lesson study: research question illustration, data collection and the writing of lesson study reports, in which problems are identified and corresponding reasons are explored. In the final paper, these questions are summarized, analyzed and discussed with Per Dalin’s (2011) technology-political-cultural framework.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

From teaching task to real problem: A comparative study on how to propose problems in lesson study

HUANG Jiahui, CHEN Jiayuan

Raising questions is the beginning of lesson study. According to Guiqing An’s (2010) study, lesson study should capture the problems from details, focus on the problems, define the core concepts in the research questions by collecting and analyzing the literature, and propose the hypothesis based on the questions. Through participatory observation and interview in this cooperative project, it is discovered that before teachers put forward the questions of lesson study, some teachers lacked the literature collection and analysis and the definition of the core concept; the questions put forward were too broad (e.g. students’ low classroom engagement), especially indicating a muddle between phenomenon and problem resulting from insufficient reflectionï¼›teachers propose questions departing from their own feels rather than student-based evidence; and so forth. Based on these, this study will analyze why in the questions-raising segment of lesson study some teachers had the above problems while some teachers were able to raise questions on the spot. Through the comparison of the two types of teachers, the corresponding strategies and suggestions will be proposed.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

How teachers response in the process of data collection under the background of the paradigm shift from teaching research to lesson study

TANG Lin

Data collection is the key segment of lesson study, which provides evidence reflecting and re-planning of teaching. It is mainly conducted by means of classroom observation, questionnaire survey, tests and so on. Through observation, interview and case report collection, this study explores the process of teachers’ lesson study in this project. It is found that teachers have the following problems in the process of data collection: The tools’ pertinence is so insufficient that the research questions cannot be answered; the focus is on teacher’s teaching rather than students’ learning; the judgement relies more on teachers’ feel rather than measurement tools. However, there are also some advantages in data collection of lesson study in Chinese teaching research culture, such as the diversification and facilitation of data collection tools, and the process of tools design through cooperation in collective lesson preparation. Therefore, in the process of paradigm transformation from teaching research to lesson study, teachers should fully explore and promote the local experience, and on this basis, realize the scientific, targeted promotion and key shift in the process of data collection.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

The dilemma and outlet of teachers’ writing of lesson study report under the background of paradigm shift from teaching study to lesson study

TIAN Shixu

As an important part of the lesson study, the lesson study report is the textualization of the lesson study research results and is an important way to promote teachers’ knowledge production (Catherine Lewis,2009). It is based on this explicit expression of results that many beneficial research experiences can be spread and promoted on a larger scale. Based on this project, through analysis of data obtained by questionnaires, interviews and material collections, it is found that there are many problems in the reports written by 12 primary school teachers, such as unreasonable choice of topics, unclear description of research questions, more experience summary but less reflection and research, unclear structural logic, irregular writing and so on. Researchers will further explore the causes of these problems, and propose corresponding improvement strategies from three aspects: consciousness, theory and practice.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Improving teachers’ lesson study abilities in the context of university-school partnership

XU Miao

Under the university-school(U-S)partnership framework, this study explores how the program mentioned above promotes teachers improving their lesson study abilities and devoting into one paradigm shift from teaching research to learning study. In this process, university professors, outside experts and normal students get involved and collectively help the schools integrate lesson study into Jiaoyan. Qualitative research method was used in this research, when collecting data related to teachers’ lesson study through interviews, observations and physical collections. On the basis of responding to those questions and reasons discussed in the other three articles, this paper concludes the strategies to facilitate teachers’ research ability in lesson studies by applying Per Dalin’s (2011) technology-political-cultural university partnership framework. In the technical dimension, the program should provide the model of lesson study and cooperation achievements, and construct a knowledge repertoire of lesson studies. In the political dimension, school leaders should combine the time of Jiaoyan and lesson studies and achieve equal opportunities by executive interventions. In the cultural dimension, teachers’ pragmatism must be respected and cooperation culture is supposed to steadily establish.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Paradigm shift, Teaching research, U-S partnership

Reflective Lesson Study: images of contextualized practices from Japan to Africa

Roundtable338Pauline Mangulabnan, Nara Women's University, Graduate School of Social Life and Human Environment, Japan; Mai Kishino, Yuu Kimura, University of Fukui, Department of Professional Development of Teachers, Japan; Emad Samy, British Council Egypt, Egypt; Emerthe Kabatesi, Rwanda Education Board, Rwanda; Patrick Kabwe, Zambia Ministry of Education, Zambia; Thomas Arboh, National Teaching Council, Ghana

BoardroomTue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In recent years, there is a growing number of programs bringing the Japanese lesson study variation to different countries, especially African countries. Three years ago, the Reflective Lesson Study Knowledge Co-Creation Program (KCCP) of the University of Fukui Department of Professional Development of Teachers (DPDT), in cooperation with JICA, has started offering African educators a new perspective of integrating reflective practice to lesson study. This variation is called, ‘Reflective Lesson Study (RLS)’, which is the core of the said program, together with a learning spiral inquiry approach to professional learning and lesson study. In this roundtable session, we discuss DPDT’s RLS and how it is being used in the design of the program with African educators, actual images of practices in African countries as they reconstruct their lesson study programs after participating in DPDT KCCP, and DPDT KCCP as an inquiry-based and reflective international teacher training model.

Summary

Background

In recent years, there is a growing number of programs bringing Japanese LS to African countries. Three years ago, the Reflective Lesson Study Knowledge Co-Creation Program (KCCP) of the University of Fukui Department of Professional Development of Teachers (DPDT), in cooperation with JICA, started offering African educators a new perspective of integrating reflective practice to lesson study. This variation is called, ‘Reflective Lesson Study (RLS)’, which is the core of the said program, together with a learning spiral inquiry approach (see Theoretical Framing) to professional learning and LS. In this session, we discuss DPDT’s RLS and how it is being used in the design of the program with African educators, and images of actual practices in African countries as they reconstruct their LS programs after participating in DPDT KCCP.

Purpose of Presentation

The purpose is to discuss KCCP's RLS as a reflective teacher training model for LS, and to share cases of RLS efforts in African countries. To provide images for reconstruction of LS programs in Africa, we ask, ‘What new LS efforts are being carried out in each country?’ In particular, we look at how these efforts to cultivate RLS differ from past practices shedding light to the learning spiral inquiry framework utilized in KCCP. Countries were purposefully selected to represent a diverse picture of RLS implementations outside Japan as a result of the alternative teacher training program.

Agenda

Introduction and Background of KCCP (5minutes)

Introduction to Spiral Learning Framework and RLS (10minutes)

Discussion of RLS Initiatives in African Countries (30minutes)

Small Group Discussions (30minutes)

Summary (15minutes)

Roles

The moderator and discussants are educators from DPDT and four (Ghana, Egypt, Rwanda, Zambia) African countries. These educators were involved both as facilitators and trainees in the KCCP on inquiry learning and RLS. Moreover, they have various school-based roles that support teachers engaging in RLS.

Discussants will facilitate small group discussions and accommodate questions. Participants are expected to share their experiences of LS and/or LS teacher training initiatives, and their organizational approaches to supporting professional learning.

Theoretical Framing: Inquiry Learning Spiral

We use a learning spiral framework based on concepts from Dewey’s (1938) experience and reflection, Schon’s reflection-in-action (1983), and teacher learning documented in practice records (e.g. Yanagisawa (ed.), 1995) Drawing from these concepts, the KCCP program was organized in multi-tiered learning spirals with the following components: Initiation — Planning — Construction — Expression/Sharing — Reflection (Yanagisawa, 2011). This is a continuous inquiry-based process, where one learning serves as the basis for the next inquiry cycle. The three-week KCCP was conceptualized using this learning spirals to look at student, teacher and school reflective learning which are important components of RLS.

Finding and Contributions

This roundtable session complements purpose of WALS by 1) providing an alternative model to international professional learning; 2) situating RLS in another context; and, 3) providing a framework for supporting teachers’ longitudinal professional learning. Our findings, discussed in the session, provide images of how RLS can be transferred to another context though the learning spiral framework.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Contextualization of Lesson Study, Model for International Teacher Training, Reflective Lesson Study

What kind of role can key figures and management play to secure LS in school organizations?

Roundtable374Heleen Hanssens, HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, Netherlands

BoardroomTue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

Although the conditions for implementing Lesson Study (LS) in a sustainable way (De Vries, Roorda & Van Veen, 2017) were taken into account when designing LS interventions, the LS practice as a means for collaborative learning did not become commonplace at the participating schools. After evaluating the effort of the school management and the key figures in the schools, both crucial factors in the implementation of LS as a structural way of teacher professionalization, we see that there are additional tools needed. In the round table we would like to explore on the basis of case studies which tools in which kind of context are effective.

Summary

The past three years the Utrecht University of Applied Sciences facilitated various LS-groups at schools for secondary education in the Utrecht region. Four of these schools did several LS-projects and have the aim to establish LS as the standard means for teacher professional development.

Although the conditions for implementing LS in a sustainable way (De Vries, Roorda & Van Veen, 2017) were taken into account in the design of the interventions at these four secondary schools, the LS practice as a means for collaborative learning did not become commonplace at the participating schools.

The conditions we took into account were 1) voluntary participation in the LS, 2) facilitation of the LS process, 3) integration of pedagogical content knowledge, 4) special attention for collaboration in the LS teams, and 5) support from school management, both valuing the activity, as well as providing time and means for organizing the LS process in the work flow of teachers. Furthermore De Vries, Verhoef & Goei (2016) state that it is important to make sure the school leadership organizes key figures that act as ambassador and teacher leaders. Hereby making sure the enthusiasm for LS spreads through the whole school organization.

Despite the enthusiasm of almost all participants, which was shown by their choice to participate in more than one LS cycle, none of the participating schools seemed to adopt LS as the standard means for professional development. Even though the participants acted as ambassadors within their schools, and management seemed to support the LS projects firmly, LS did not prove to be sustainable.

Our evaluations of the projects show that most conditions were met in the different contexts. The evaluation shows that there are various ways in which the school management support LS. Not all of supportive efforts turned out to be effective. The second remarkable outcome is the role of the key figures. All of the schools organized different activities to share the positive experiences disseminate the results from the LS, and spread the enthusiasm for LS. The key figures played an important part in these activities, it would seem that the key figures have difficulty in taking informal leadership to secure and further LS activities within their schools. We would like to explore what kind of tools could effectively support key figures in school to broaden and build the LS movement.

In this round table we will discuss the following questions:

Seeing that merely managing time and funding is not enough, how can school management support LS in such a way that it becomes an integral part of the day to day practice of teachers?

Considering that key figures in the school are a crucial factor to make LS sustainable and that they seem to have difficulty in fulfilling this role, what kind of support tools could give them a secure foothold for agency?

We welcome school leadership, teachers experienced in doing LS, LS researchers to participate in de discussion, and help us to broaden the LS initiative in the Utrecht region.

and policy aspects of sustainable Lesson Study, Leadership, management
Ambassador, Key figure, School Management

CANCELLED: How lesson study affected my teacher career? importance of Lesson Study for young professionals

Ted Talk195Jamilya Abilzhanova, Nazarbayev Intellectual School Astana, Kazakhstan

Buenos Aires '72Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

There is an issue in availability of qualified young specialists in pedagogical sphere in Kazakhstan. Many of them come to schools without prior experience, abundance of teaching strategies and techniques. There are traditional ways of career development such as local seminars, professional development sessions or mentorship programmes. However Lesson study can become a new and innovative approach of looking at professional trainings. Participation in it allows young teachers to immerse in the educational process in the most practical way, work closely with experts, plan and discuss lesson observations and come up with different strategies for improvement. Collaborative work with universities and colleges can make a smooth transition of graduate students into teaching process by providing systematic learning approach based on Lesson study philosophy. Hence, making participation in it an important tool for professional development.

Summary

There is a major issue in availability of qualified human resources in school education. Many teachers are coming to middle and high schools without prior experience and training. Namely, in Kazakhstan many teachers do not have a special pedagogical degree apart from their discipline field diploma. As a result, young professionals at the beginning of their career lack teaching techniques and strategies. Naturally they would acquire desired experience through own practice and learning. Usually it is a way, which is accompanied by trial and error approach. The most common practices that are used to guide young teachers are local seminars, professional development (PD) sessions at schools and mentorship system. Local seminars are organised on a regular basis, however only several teachers from one school can attend those seminars which obviously is not enough. PD sessions in schools provide a great opportunity to acquire theoretical knowledge about pedagogy, but practical side of such kind of guidance is quite questionable. One more way to navigate newcomers is mentorship system. Although every new teacher has a mentor assigned to each of them, their communication and feedback cannot be regular enough due to the work overload. Moreover, mentorship system is established only in some schools, whereas majority do not have it.

Alternatively, participation in Lesson Study can be a very good opportunity to escalate teachers’ professional development in faster and more practical way. Throughout the process young professionals participate in lesson planning, lesson observation and discussions with more experienced colleagues, which results in effective training based on active and thoughtful lesson examination. The systematic approach to Lesson study allows for deeper and broader analysis. Moreover it is build around a common interest, idea, subject, problem which motivates teachers to collaborate in order to achieve desired outcome.

I became a part of a lesson study team unintentionally, during my first days at school. I was attending lessons, planning and discussions as an obserer. As responsibilities were clearly divided between all the teachers-participants, during my observation I made very detailed and thoughtful notes. I paid attention to every single detail of the lesson, which allowed me to think about my own lessons and strategies. During discussions I realized how different perspectives of several teachers can result in meaningful conclusions and studying implications. It turned out that participation in LS was actually a useful course on effective teaching, where you are not required to have a mentor or attend arranged PD sessions. Complete immersion in teaching process helps to develop your own skills and attitude. This could be a great way to connect pedagogical colleges, students studying education and the schools. On the one hand students get into the teaching culture, gaining experience for themselves. On the other hand, they assist experienced teachers in lesson examination, enhancing the educational process.

To summarize the main points, there is a two-sided benefit of Lesson study, which could integrate young specialists from pedagogical colleges and universities with teachers at schools. It makes LS an important tool in teacher’s professional development.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Career development, Young professionals

Four weddings and a funeral: five good reasons to collaborate on a lesson

Ted Talk234Stéphane Clivaz, University of Teacher Education Vaud, 3LS, Switzerland

Buenos Aires '72Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This TED talk will highlight the five key moments of a professional development lesson study group in Lausanne, Switzerland. Each moment will be highlighted in terms of key learning situation of professional knowledge and will be linked to the graphical representation of the lesson study circle (Clivaz, 2018) and… to a movie.

Summary

Our two-year work with a Lausanne (Switzerland) lesson study group of 8 grade 4 teachers on mathematics lesson has been analysed in terms of mathematical knowledge for teaching used by teachers (Clivaz & Ni Shuilleabhain, 2019; Ni Shuilleabhain & Clivaz, 2017), of influences on teachers’ practices (Batteau, 2017, 2018), of knowledge sharing (Clerc-Georgy & Clivaz, 2016) or of professional development situation (Clivaz, 2015, 2016). This TED talk will rely on these analyses, step back and highlight four “aha moments” and an “ouch moment” in a rather unusual type of presentation.

References:

Batteau, V. (2017). Using Lesson Study in mathematics to develop primary teacher’s practices: a case study. Quadrante, XXV, 127-157.

Batteau, V. (2018). Une étude de l’évolution des pratiques d’enseignants primaires vaudois dans le cadre du dispositif de formation lesson study en mathématiques. [A study of the evolution of primary school teachers’ practices in a training and research process in mathematics: lesson study]. (Thèse de doctorat), Université de Genève, Genève.

Clerc-Georgy, A., & Clivaz, S. (2016). Evolution des rôles entre chercheurs et enseignants dans un processus lesson study: quel partage des savoirs? [Evolution of the roles between researchers and teachers in a lesson study process: how is knowledge shared?]. (In F. Ligozat, M. Charmillot, & A. Muller (Eds.), Le partage des savoirs dans les processus de recherche en éducation (pp. 189-208). Série Raisons Educatives, n°20. Bruxelles: De Boeck.

Clivaz, S. (2015). Les Lesson Study : Des situations scolaires aux situations d’apprentissage professionnel pour les enseignants. [Lessons Study: From school situations to professional learning situations for teachers]. Revue des HEP et institutions assimilées de Suisse romande et du Tessin, 19, 99-105.

Clivaz, S. (2016). Lesson Study: from professional development to research in mathematics education. Quadrante, XXV(1), 97-112.

Clivaz, S. (2018). Lesson study as a fundamental situation for the knowledge of teaching. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 7(3), 172 - 183.

Clivaz, S., & Ni Shuilleabhain, A. (2019). Examining Teacher Learning in Lesson Study: Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Levels of Teacher Activity. In R. Huang, A. Takahashi, & J. P. da Ponte (Eds.), Theory and practices of lesson study in mathematics: An international perspective: ZDM, Springer.

Ni Shuilleabhain, A., & Clivaz, S. (2017). Analyzing Teacher Learning in Lesson Study: Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Levels of Teacher Activity. Quadrante, 26(2), 99-125.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Collaboration, Mathematics education, Professional development

The realisation of children’s right to participate based on action research principles

Ted Talk277Johanna Mahr-Slotawa, Bielefeld University, Germany

Buenos Aires '72Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In this presentation, I show how children’s participation may be realised as part of Lesson Studies. The results of my PhD research provide a model on how to realise children’s participation right in form an Action Research. I based this model, first, on my findings from Kenyan primary school children’s views on this right and, second, on my reflections on the Participatory Action Research I conducted with the children. The model describes the realisation of children’s participation right in six components. I formulated these components along Action Research principles. Of the six components I formulated, the first three state that: Children’s participation is action-focused; it increases by granting them agency, and is a collaborative dialogue between adults and children. For each of these six components, I defined the requisite changes in behaviour and practices. The model’s implementation contributes to a more sustainable education as it effects children’s personal resource development.

Summary

My desire to the realise children’s right to participate as part of Lesson Studies is informed by my experiences during a Participatory Action Research I conducted with primary school children in Kenya. Further, it is inspired by the various overseas work experiences I have had, especially around the theme of the realisation of children’s participation right within school health education contexts. I see a close connection between the realisation of this right and the goals of sustainable education. The reason for this connection is that children’s participation affects their personal resource development. Moreover, it enhances the education quality and children’s motivation. These outcomes result from children’s increased learning through actions as well as practical and democratic experiences (Jerusalem et al. 2009, Verheyde 2006).

My understanding of children’s participation builds on the few existing theoretical frameworks that have been advanced over the last decade. In line with these frameworks, my conceptualisation places emphasis on understanding of children’s participation as a dialogical process between adults and children, and, regarding children as contributors to society (Percy-Smith et al. 2010, Stoecklin 2012). Percy-Smith (2014) especially inspired me as I relied on his use of Action Research principles to reframe children’s participation. I conceptualised their participation by interpreting and facilitating it with the help of Action Research principles and characteristics. To this end, I relied on Greenwood et al.’s (2007) understanding of Action Research.

My study sought to answer the following research question: How can children’s right to participate be realised within the Comprehensive School Health Programme in Kenya? I generated my results during a five-month long Participatory Action Research (August 2013-January 2014). The research was conducted in three primary schools in Ndeiya District in Kenya. We used Participatory Learning and Action Research methods along with Focus Group Interviews. These methods enabled the children, themselves, to develop concepts for the realisation of their participation right as envisaged in Article 12 (1) of the UNCRC.

The children delineated actions that could help them realise this right. The results regarding children’s views on their right, together with my experiences during the Participatory Action Research, led me to conclude that children’s right to participate could be realised through Action Research principles and characteristics. I summarized these results in a model which conceptualises the realisation of children’s participation in form of an Action Research. For each of my six Action Research principles, the model describes the corresponding Action Research characteristics. These characteristics define the requisite changes in behaviours and practices to facilitate the realisation of children’s participation right through each Action Research principle.

From the research results I obtained, I conclude that there is a need to implement the model to realise children’s participation right as part of each Lesson Study. The pupils themselves should be involved in lesson preparation, its implementation and evaluation. My model’s focus on dialogue and actions does support this recommendation. The use of my model within Lesson Studies should be discussed further and its possible application in schools across the globe.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Action Research, Children’s participation right, Primary school

Designing tasks in a learning study with learning activity as a framework

Paper340Sanna Wettergren, Anna-Karin Nordin, Stockholm University, Sweden

Koninklijke logeTue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This paper exemplifies and discusses task design for students' exploration of algebraic expressions in a learning study. Data comes from a research project conducted in a Grade 10 in Sweden. Applying learning activity (Davydov, 2008) as a theoretical framework when designing and analyzing the research lessons, we elaborate on concepts such as problem situation, learning models, and collective reflections, as tools for designing, framing and constituating tasks. A learning activity in Davydov’s sense is characterized by introducing students to a problem situation comprising such theoretical aspects that they need to discern. The problem situation needs to be perceived as meaningful but where the students’ current knowledge is to some extent insufficient. Further, the students should be provided with some mediating tools, learning models, that can help them elaborate on the identified problem. In the presentation examples of tasks and their iterative development (refinement) will be given.

Summary

The issue for this paper is to discuss the theoretical and methodological foundations of tasks constructed and used in a learning study with a focus on students' exploration of algebraic expressions. Data comes from a research project conducted in a Grade 10 (first year of upper secondary school) in a Swedish school comprising three research lessons.

As part of the learning study a phenomenographic study (Marton, 2015) was conducted, identifying following critical aspects: 1) to discern what constitutes an information-bearing unit and that it can consist of several components, e.g. an expression within parenthesis 2) to discern how the information in a situation can be represented by variables and expressions and 3) to discern that a component of an expression can be expressed in various ways with the information given, e.g. y can be replaced by 300 - x.

Whereas variation theory (Marton, 2015) is commonly used as a theoretical framework in learning studies, this study employs learning activity (Davydov, 2008), when designing and analyzing the research lessons. A learning activity in Davydov’s sense is characterized by introducing students to a problem situation comprising such theoretical aspects that they need to discern. The problem situation needs to be perceived as meaningful but where the students’ current knowledge is to some extent insufficient. Further, the students should be provided with some mediating tools, learning models, that can help them elaborate on the identified problem.

When constructing a problem situation an analysis of the content of the learning object can be of help in finding a possible problem that needs to be transformed into a learning task. Thus, tasks in a learning activity aims to give students opportunities to gain access to theoretical content that is built into a specific knowledge e.g. algebraic expressions. In order to create, achieve or establish a learning activity, a theoretical work needs to be done collectively by the students in relation to a specific problem situation (Eriksson, 2017).

As Zuckerman (2004) describes, the reflection process in a learning activity needs to be organized so that the students among other things can take others’ perspective. Thus, the students are to be given opportunities to reflect on others’ contributions including others’ use of learning models e.g. inviting students into a fictional situation by presenting what fictitious students have answered. Collective reflections have, in this sense, a crucial function in a learning activity developing students’ understandings of algebraic expressions. Therefore, planning for collective reflections must also be considered as part of the task design.

In the paper we will exemplify and discuss how two tasks were designed and developed iteratively in three research lessons utilizing the principles of learning activity.

Research methodology and theoretical underpinnings of Lesson Study
Learning activity, Learning study, Task design

Use of LS to design and test a science tool that uses mixed reality

Paper409Henri Matimba, Utrecht University, Freudenthal Institute, Netherlands; Teresa Pedro Gomes, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Biology, Netherlands; Wouter van Joolingen, Utrecht University, Netherlands; Sui Lin Goei, VU Amsterdam, Netherlands

Koninklijke logeTue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In an international collaboration between teachers, researchers and software designers an educational instructional tool (app) addressing the enzymatic degradation of starch in the body was designed, developed and tested in a Lesson Study cycle. During the process of design and development of the tool, several defining issues and challenges were identified. The learning effect of the app was tested on different age groups, ranging from 14 to 18 years in Dutch comprehensive schools. Preliminary results show that the app helps to build schema with respect to biological and chemical concepts in the studied age groups. It can also help teachers with identifying incorrect naïve concepts held by the students, due to the fact that visualizations tend to be more interactive and real like. The age group of the 18 years predominantly used the app as a means to test whether the curriculum is understood, thereby reinforcing knowledge already obtained.

Summary

In a preliminary project the advantages of augmented and/or mixed reality capabilities in biology education was studied in a classroom setting. To research this, an interactive application was designed and developed around an enzymatic reaction in the human body. With the app learning difficulties in the approach to obtaining knowledge and understanding of scientific models were investigated. Especially tasks that looked at analytic reasoning, problem solving and team work by the students were investigated in the test phase of the study. These skills closely link to the competencies known as 21st century skills, identified as markers for success in present day society.

After an analysis in which teachers and researchers participated the choice was made to develop an app around the topic of the degradation of starch present in food. In the human body this degradation is an enzymatic reaction, where different types of the enzyme amylase help breakdown starch - a polysaccharide consisting of glucose units - into smaller metabolites and ultimately the disaccharide maltose. Maltose is spliced into glucose units by the enzyme maltase, making it possible to be absorbed into the bloodstream and transport throughout the body. Interestingly, cellulose another polysaccharides is unaffected by the enzyme amylase. In the subsequent design cycle researchers and software designers worked closely together to translate the parameters given by the teachers into a working educational tool. A limitation proved to be the lack or absence of content to build interactive visualizations that allow for augmentation at the 3D microscopic level. Another challenge was the generation of a coherent scenario whereby different concepts and ideas can be taught.

Upon completion the app was tested following the lesson study guidelines of a research lesson. For this a teacher was asked to scrutinize his students and selected three of them more closely. The teacher was furthermore asked to prepare the lesson meticulously, and predict in advance the reactions and behaviour of the students. After the research lesson was executed it was discussed in detail. It was found that the younger age group tends to be less systematic with working with the app. Older students also used the input of the app better in conjunction of other media forms. They were also more aware what they what they were looking in the app. In other words they anticipated certain visualizations or results. It was interesting to see that for all investigated age groups the use of an smart device did not interfere with their concentration level. Furthermore, students were able to work very orderly in small groups of 4 or 5 to solve additional questions. It was observed in all age groups that students that were supposedly more hesitant indeed needed more tutoring towards discovering the features of the app. In the follow up interviews the selected students expressed an overall positive attitude towards this type of learning. Less pronounced were learning effects with respect to conceptual model building. This could be explained as a result of an incorrect focus in the research lesson.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Design cycle, Innovative instructional tool, Secondary school science education

Opportunities for teacher learning from 'knowledgeable other'

Paper51May Chavez, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Philippines

Koninklijke logeTue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The role of knowledgeable other (KO) is considered one of the critical factors for Lesson Study (LS) to be productive for teacher learning. In our country, where LS is relatively new to teachers, the role of KO and how they should be facilitating learning is still in a black box, even to those who initiate teachers in LS. Very few researchers have looked into the role of KO. This paper explores how the role of KO is developing in LS activities in our country. Using grounded theory and case study approach, I examined the nature of the comments and inputs of four KO’s, each of which I considered a case. A range of themes emerged from my analysis. Differences in the nature of comments each of the cases, each of which represents different degrees of experience with LS were also observed and these provide new insights about KO’s for LS.

Summary

The role of knowledgeable other (KO) is considered one of the critical factors for Lesson Study (LS) to be successful and productive for teacher learning. The KO is expected to provide deeper meaning to teachers’ experience and to facilitate teacher learning from their conduct of LS. In the Philippines, where lesson study is relatively new to teachers, the role of KO and how they should be facilitating learning is still in a black box, even to those who initiate teachers in lesson study. Who can teachers invite as KO? Does KO need to have LS experience? Do they need to come from teacher training institutions? What should KO focus on in their comments? What knowledge and skills do they need to have? These are real questions to us in Philippines and answers to these question are absent even in literature on lesson study. Even in Japan, Takahashi (2014) acknowledged that very few researchers have looked into the role of knowledgeable other. In this paper, I explore how the role of KO is developing in lesson study activities in our country. Using grounded theory and case study approach, I examined the nature of the comments and inputs of four KO’s, each of which I considered a case. The data came from the transcribed audio of a video of the post-lesson discussion.

A range of themes emerged from my analysis of KO comments, the most frequent of which pertains to facilitation of the lesson, the connection of each part of the lesson, on the attainment of goals/sub-goals of the lesson, importance of writing a detailed lesson plan, and importance of activity tryout. A few comments were on the pupil’s participation, materials used in the activity, safety precautions in doing the activity, difference of demo teaching vs lesson implementation, stating objectives of the research lesson, spiraling of the topic in the curriculum, and observers behavior during the lesson implementation. Differences in focus and nature of comments were also observed in each of the cases, each of which represents different degrees of experience with LS, providing new insights for training and supporting KO.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Knowledgeable Other, Professional development

The role of the teacher educator during Lesson Study sessions

Paper130João Pedro da Ponte, Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Educação, Portugal

Londen '71Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

Leading Lesson Study is a complex process. When the participating teachers have no previous experience regarding Lesson Study, the role of the teacher educator/facilitator becomes critical, but there is still little research on this issue. In this qualitative and interpretative study, carried out in the professional practice of two of the authors, we seek to characterize the teacher educator’s actions in the discussions in Lesson Study sessions. The results show that the teacher educators carry out three main types of actions. Most frequent are supporting/guiding actions through which teacher educators demand contributions of factual nature or detailed descriptions of events that teachers experienced. Next, are informing/suggesting actions, which serve them to introduce new information, to bring teachers to a more precise language, and to validate teachers’ contributions. Finally, they use challenging actions to induce in-depth reflections from the teachers and these actions have the greatest potential for professional development.

Summary

The practice or context from which the work originates. This work is based on a Lesson Study carried out in 2018/2019 in Portugal with five primary school teachers teaching grade 1. The participants decided to focus on the topic of problem solving. One teacher had students from a very poor social environment, two had students from mixed environments, and two other had leadership or supporting roles in the school. The Lesson Study was jointly led by the two first authors of this paper.

Theoretical framework. This study is based on a conceptualization of teachers´ knowledge regarding mathematics learning which gives special attention to pedagogical content knowledge (Ball et al., 2008, Shulman, 1986) and, within this to knowledge about the mathematics teaching process (Ponte, 2012). It is also based in a practice-based conceptualization of professional development (Ball et al., 1999; Smith, 2001).

Research question. We seek to characterize the actions of the teacher educators during the discussions in sessions of a Lesson Study undertaken with primary school teachers and to know the implications of different kinds of actions for unfolding of the lesson study process and for teachers’ professional development.

Method(s). This is a qualitative/interpretative research. Data collection was made through participant observation, with audio recording of the Lesson Study sessions and writing of a research journal. Data analysis was supported by a framework based in Ponte and Quaresma (2016), originally developed for mathematics teaching, and in this study adapted to teacher education, and proceeded inductively to ascertain the implications of teacher educators’ actions.

Relevance for educational practice. Leading a Lesson Study is a complex process that in many cases is carried out by a teacher educator/facilitator, especially when the participating teachers have no previous experience regarding this professional development activity. This role is rather different from the role of the “knowledgeable other” discussed by Takahashi (2014), that only intervenes after the research lesson. Since little is known regarding the way teacher educators conduct working sessions, this is a relevant topic for research.

Results. The results show that the teacher educators carry out three main types of actions. Most frequent are supporting/guiding actions, which support the development of the session, and through which the teacher educators demand from teachers contributions of factual nature or descriptions of events that they experienced. In order of frequency, the following are informing/suggesting actions, with which teacher educators introduce new information, bring teachers to a more precise language, and validate their contributions. Finally, the teacher educators use challenging actions to induce in-depth reflections from the teachers.

Conclusion and discussion. During the development of Lesson Study, supporting/guiding actions are necessary to direct the flow of the joint work. Informing/suggesting are needed when the group is blocked or may profit from factual information not readily accessible. Challenging actions have the greatest potential for professional development, as they lead teachers to consider new issues or regard current issues in a new perspective. The nature and frequency of challenging actions may be an indicator of successful Lesson Study sessions.

Lesson Study and the facilitator
Discourse, Facilitator, Primary school

How does a mentor teacher develop collaborative lesson study with a student teacher?

Paper228Atsushi Sakamoto, Fukushima University, Japan

Londen '71Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This study examines how mentor teachers prepare collaborative lesson study with student teachers to clarify one of the bases of implementing lesson study. In doing so, it adopts a model in which teachers collaboratively develop professional and practical knowledge through lesson study (Akita, 2009). A semi-structured interview (one-to-one and face-to-face) was conducted after the first week of practice teaching. The teachers were asked to look back over the week and consider the kind of guidance they provided during the practice. Two mentor teachers’ narratives were coded qualitatively (Sato, 2008). The commonalities and differences between the categories that emerged in their narratives were examined. The analysis showed classroom context sharing and collaborative lesson planning as the basis of lesson study in practice teaching. It can be suggested that mentor teachers promote reflective attitude for collaborative lesson study by verbalizing their own practice to share the classroom context.

Summary

The practice teaching process is considered to be one of the origins of Japanese lesson study (Matoba, 2015). To clarify one of the bases of Japanese lesson study, it is therefore important to determine how student teachers collaborate with mentor teachers to plan and conduct classes, and how mentor teachers observe and record the lesson, and after the lesson, reflect with student teachers.

In many cases, student teachers in four-weeks practice teaching take lessons after the second week. In other words, the first week can be considered a preparation period for collaborative lesson study with student teachers. Examining how mentor teachers prepare to realize collaborative lesson study with student teachers can clarify one of the conditions for implementing collaborative lesson study.

In this study, teachers are regarded as reflective practitioners (Schon, 1983). Considering lesson study between mentor and student teachers, this study adopts a model in which teachers collaboratively develop professional and practical knowledge through lesson study (the collaborative construction of professional knowledge model; Akita, 2009).

The following are the research questions addressed in this study.

“What and how does a mentor teacher teach a student teacher in the first week of practice teaching to prepare collaborative lesson study with the student teacher?”

Two public elementary school teachers (teacher A and teacher B) participated in this study. It was their first experience of being a mentor teacher.A semi-structured interview (one-to-one and face-to-face) was conducted after the first week of practice teaching. The teachers were asked to look back over the week and consider the kind of guidance they provided during the practice. The interview was conducted to extract the mentor teachers’ narratives.

The obtained narratives were coded qualitatively (Sato, 2008), considering what and how the mentor teachers taught student teachers in relation to lesson study. The commonalities and differences between the categories that emerged in their narratives were examined.

The common categories were as follows: “practice explanation/how to teach,” “proposal/how to teach,” “instruction/actual condition of children,” and “instruction/how to interact with children.”In other words, mentor teachers explained how they usually conduct lessons and talked about the actual condition of children and how to interact with them. This can be considered instruction to share not only the method of teaching and information about children but also the specific and local history and context of the classroom with the student teachers. Additionally, the mentor teachers proposed the lesson method, which means giving some orientation to the lesson of the student teachers and showing the intention to plan the lesson in collaboration.

From the above, it is clear that classroom context sharing and collaborative lesson planning are the basis of lesson study in practice teaching. It can thus be suggested that mentor teachers promote reflective attitude for collaborative lesson study by verbalizing their own practice to share the classroom context.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Collaborative lesson study, Practice teaching, Qualitative coding

Lesson Study-based training teacher educator: case study on self-study and cooperative Lesson Study

Paper262Yoshida Nariakira, Maruyama Yasushi, Matsuda Mitsuru, Kusahara Kazuhiro, Iwata Shotaro, Yodozawa Maho, Miyamoto Yuichi, Matsuura Asuka, Hamamoto Aiko, Naganuma Seigi, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Education, Japan

Londen '71Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This study is a developmental research to construct a new framework of training program for teacher educators, which seeks for bridging self-study and PreFD/PFF under the Lesson Study. The research question in this study claims how the combination of Lesson Study and self-study contributes to training teacher educators at graduate school. Under this purpose, it is to be qualitatively analyzed, how significant or meaningful the feedback from participants in “Teaching Practicum” works for learning process in trainees. Case is retrieved from “the Certificate Program for Preparing Future Faculty in Teacher Education” for doctoral students in Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. The conclusive statements will be following: (1) to promote interactive and interdisciplinary learning process, (2) to provide doctoral students with a chance to form an ideal image of “teacher educator” respectively, (3) to craft collaboration between FD of professors and PreFD of Ph.D. Students.

Summary

The Japanese Lesson Study, generated as a place of the teacher's independent improvement, has developed, of its multi-dimensional expansion, a training program to be a teacher educator at university (Maruyama et al., 2019). With reframing the traditional Japanese Lesson Study itself, the training program nurtured graduate students who enjoyed self-reflective and cooperative discussions and activities with other participants and then were made themselves ready to be engaged in the prospective teacher training in the near future (Yoshida et al., 2019).

The positioning of teacher educators and their roles are largely different depending on teacher training institutions. Among them, a research network on teacher education and training of teacher educators using "self-study" developed in Netherlands deserves attention on the one hand (Lunenberg/ Dengerink/ Korthagen, 2014; Swennen/ Klink, 2010). On the other hand, when it comes to training program for teacher educators, attention has to be paid to trends in training graduate students at graduate school to be future teacher educators, so called PreFD/PFF (Preparing Future Faculty).

This study is a developmental research to construct a new framework of training program for teacher educators, which seeks for bridging self-study and PreFD/PFF under the Lesson Study. The research question in this study claims how the combination of Lesson Study and self-study contributes to training teacher educators at graduate school. Under this purpose, it is to be qualitatively analyzed, how significant or meaningful the feedback from participants in “Teaching Practicum” works for learning process in trainees (graduate students: practicants). Case is retrieved from “the Certificate Program for Preparing Future Faculty in Teacher Education” for doctoral students in Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima university.

The conclusive statements will be following. Firstly, the significance of our practice lies in bringing several specific fields of subject pedagogies together that enables to promote interactive and interdisciplinary learning process. Discussing about one practicum beyond the specialties in pre-conference and post-conference certainly brings a positive impact on participants who would otherwise never know different perspectives of other discipline. Secondly, it is articulated that the practicum as PreFD provides doctoral students with a chance to form an ideal image of “teacher educator” respectively. Not only forming the ideal, practicum also functions as a pragmatic place to reformulate their ideal images under the authentic situation (delivering a lecture in front of students). Finally, benefits that participants other than practicants enjoyed cannot also be ignored. Not only do self-study and cooperative Lesson Study give practicants a chance to reconsider their own teaching philosophy, but professors and other students who participated in pre-conferences and post-conferences also gained new insights on teaching strategies etc. Here it can be clearly observed that combining self-study and cooperative Lesson Study in one program involves all participants into a reflective (individual) and cooperative (collective) learning process.

Innovative uses of Lesson Study
Cooperative Lesson Study, Self-Study, Traning Teacher Educator in University

Teachers’ interactions: knowledge sharing and development through Lesson Study

Paper20James Calleja, Michelle Attard Tonna, Michael Buhagiar, University of Malta, Faculty of Education, Malta

Madrid '69Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This paper focuses on the development of a teacher learning community around a mathematics lesson study. A qualitative case study methodology is adopted to examine teacher interactions during their lesson study meetings and to investigate the knowledge shared and developed over time. This understanding is gathered through three data sources: video recordings, observational fieldnotes and a teacher online forum. To examine interactions and how these shape teachers’ lesson study goals, analysis of data draws on talk-in-interaction (see Sacks et al., 1974). Talk-in-interaction provides an analytical lens to look into teachers’ social actions as shaped by the lesson study context. This research suggests that teachers construct a sense of the ongoing lesson study process through interactions. Interactions support teachers to negotiate a role for participating and, as a result, to develop their knowledge. Moreover, there are indications that interactions develop teachers’ actions, their roles and identities as teachers of mathematics.

Summary

This study involves eight mathematics teachers in a secondary school in Malta as they engage in lesson study from March to May 2017. For them, lesson study is a new professional development initiative facilitated by the first author who had previously worked with this group as their head of department. In this study, we seek to understand how teachers engage in learning through ongoing interactions, both face-to-face and online, and how their interactions support teachers to develop types of knowledge – pedagogical, content and/or pedagogical content (see Shulman, 1986) – about teaching mathematics. Talk-in-interaction (see Sacks et al., 1974) provides an analytic lens that enables us to examine the knowledge, skills and practices that teachers talk about and develop as a result of ongoing lesson study interactions. Hence, we analyse how interactional patterns between participants and the facilitator develop over time. This analytical approach aims at specifying the format through which the practice of lesson study is ‘talked into being’ (Heritage, 1984).

Drawing on theories of sociocultural learning (Vygotsky, 1978) and community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991), we examine the ways in which knowledge is revealed and shared by teachers as they move from peripheral to full participation within the lesson study process. Our research is driven by the question: How do participants interact as they collaborate on a mathematics lesson study, and what types of knowledge do they draw upon during this developmental process? To address this question, we therefore explore how the lesson study context and the facilitator’s role shape teachers’ ways of being and participating.

We use a qualitative case-study methodology (Yin, 2003) to explore the ways in which interaction is enacted by teachers and their facilitator. In our case, the facilitator-as-researcher participates in and observes a community of teachers over a period of time. Data collection methods include six video recordings, three observational fieldnotes of the face-to-face meetings, and access to an online forum comprising around 50 entries created by teachers and the facilitator. Analysis of the data sheds light on teachers’ participation and assumed roles, their production and sharing of material artefacts, and the lesson study environment. Our inductive approach (see Boyatzis, 1998) to data analysis permits us to view and re-review interactions as we seek to identify the emerging patterns.

Findings suggest that lesson study interactions are shaped by the embedded processes, in particular the role of the facilitator and the school context. It appears that the facilitator can play a key role in managing discussions, provoking thinking and leading the group to negotiated decisions. On the other hand, it seems that the school context – its affordances and constraints – can also shape teachers’ possibilities for action. This research further suggests that interactions enabled by a facilitator can support teachers’ understanding of the lesson study process, the negotiation of their participatory roles, and their construction of different types of knowledge. Moreover, there are indications that participation in lesson study can inform teachers’ classroom actions, as they develop their professional roles and identities.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Knowledge construction, Mathematics teachers, Talk-in-interaction

What's it look like? A closer view on the interactions of teachers in collegial lesson planning

Paper49Daniela Rzejak, University of Kassel, Germany

Madrid '69Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

Teacher cooperation is considered an important element for teacher, instructional and school development. In Germany, however, intensive co-constructive forms of cooperation among teachers are still not widespread. Additionally, little is known about how the interaction behaviour of teachers in joint teacher and school development processes is shaped concretely. This was the starting point for the present study: First the project KURIER, a teacher professional development program that aims to improve the cooperative lesson planning and reflection within teacher teams will be introduced. The interaction processes within two teams of teachers will then be presented and compared on the basis of transcript excerpts. The team discussions focused on the joint planning of a lesson. From the comparative analysis, first indications for the development of a system for categorizing interaction and cooperation processes of teachers can be derived. A corresponding system can also be valuable for analyzing co-constructive processes in Lesson Studies.

Summary

Cooperation among teachers is considered an important prerequisite of school quality and an element for an ongoing teacher professionalization and school development. It is therefore not surprising that a large number of studies investigate the conditions, forms and effects of cooperation (e. g. Massenkeil & Rothland; Vangrieken, Dochy, Raes & Kyndt, 2015). A particularly intensive and effective form of co-constructive cooperation happens within Professional Learning Communities (PLC). PLCs are characterized by different features: The core features include a shared focus on student learning, a deprivatization of classroom practice, meaning mutual hospitations in each other classes, practicing a reflective dialogue on teaching practices and student learning and sharing equal values concerning teaching and learning. Finally, the work of a PLC is not a one-shot-happenings but rather a routine of co-constructive cooperation (e. g. Bolam, McMahon, Stoll, Thomas & Wallace, 2005; Bonsen & Rolff, 2006; Fulton & Britton, 2011; Lomos, Hofman & Bosker, 2011).

However, a representative study with teachers at schools with secondary level showed that intensive co-constructive cooperation is still not widespread in Germany (Richter & Pant, 2016). That is worrisome, since e. g. coping with innovative and complex tasks needs intensive forms of teacher cooperation (e. g. Berkemeyer, Järvinen, Otto & Bos, 2011; Gräsel, 2019). Thus, an important question is how to promote and support co-construction among teachers. But as a preliminary to this, it is necessary to gain an understanding of how cooperative processes in teacher teams take place. The latter aspect is the starting point for this study.

In 2018, a one year teacher professional development program began in order to build up routines among teachers for collegial lesson planning and reflection. Therefore, the program aimed at teams from a school and not at individual teachers. The colleagues should cooperatively plan their lessons and develop new teaching strategies. They should also practice collegial in-class observations and reflect together on the lesson. To investigate the learning opportunities of the training and to get an idea of what kind of collaborative processes take place when teachers plan and reflect lessons together, the program was evaluated by the University of Kassel.

In order to comprehend these discursive processes among teachers and to develop an analysis system the study compared the interaction processes within two teacher-teams participating in the training on the basis of transcript excerpts in a first step. Both team discussions focused on the joint planning of a lesson. The comparative case analysis provides indications for the development of a system to categorize interaction and cooperation processes of teachers that is to be used for further analysis of co-constructive processes within the project. The initial case analyses reveal that there is only limited reciprocal reference among the teachers and that they have many parallel conversations, so that it is hardly possible to assume a co-constructive build-up of knowledge. Beyond that an appropriate analysis system can enrich investigation of co-constructive processes e.g. in the context of Lesson Studies and Learning Studies in the future.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Comparative interaction analysis, Cooperation, Teacher professional development

Reconstructing the image of teacher in Lesson Study

Paper91Maria J. Servan, Noemi Peña, University of Malaga, Spain

Madrid '69Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research on Lesson Study's potential to reconstruct student teachers' practical knowledge. It focuses specifically on a Lesson Study implemented as part of the subjects Practicum III and Degree Essay, which are imparted in year four of the Degree in Early Chilhood Education at Málaga University. The work is based on qualitative research that is developed through a case study. This research has shown Lesson Study's potential to reconstruct students' image of teaching throughout the different phases thanks to two key processes: theorisation of practice and experimentation of theory:

First phase, determining the focus for the proposal.Second phase, designing the proposal.The first signs of the reconstruction of the image of teaching can be seen in the proposal redesign phase between the two experimental lessons.

Summary

This paper presents the results of research on Lesson Study's potential to reconstruct student teachers' practical knowledge. It focuses specifically on a Lesson Study implemented as part of the subjects Practicum III and Degree Essay, which are imparted in year four of the Degree in Early Childhood Education at Málaga University (Soto, Serván and Caparrós, 2016).

The work is based on qualitative research that is developed through a case study. The case selected was a group of six students, one of which was chosen for further follow-up. The Lesson Study comprises practice over the course of four months, carried out in schools as part of the Practicum III. Here the first six phases are developed: 1) Define the problem; 2) Design the experimental lesson; 3) Develop the first experimental lesson; 4) Analyse; 5) Redesign; 6) Develop the second experimental lesson and the Final Dissertation, which makes up phase seven (analysis and presentation in an expanded context). Observation sessions, work meetings and development of the two experimental lessons were held over this period. Group and individual interviews were also carried out. The cooperative documents prepared by the group of students and their individual portfolios were also reviewed. All the information collected was analysed and categorised.

This research has shown Lesson Study's potential to reconstruct students' image of teaching throughout the different phases thanks to two key processes: theorisation of practice (Hagger & Hazel, 2006), and experimentation of theory (Korthagen, Loughran & Russell, 2006; Pérez Gómez, Soto and Serván, 2015).

The results of the research have shown that Lesson Study has enormous potential to reconstruct students' image of teaching throughout the Lesson Study:

First phase, determining the focus for the proposal: based on teachers' learning needs, allowing us to identify the image of teacher we are starting off from.Second phase, designing the proposal: we believe cooperative reflection on teachers' responses to hypothetical situations is particularly relevant, since it allows students to start to cooperatively question their own practical knowledge.The first signs of the reconstruction of the image of teacher can be seen in the proposal redesign phase between the two experimental lessons. This is the point at which the group perceives that their beliefs, fears or outlooks contrast with their experience.

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Practical knowledge, Practicum

Rethinking Strengthening Lessons and Schools through LS using assessment to improve pedagogy

Symposium355Masahiro Arimoto, Tohoku university, Graduate school of education, Japan

Omloop NoordTue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The aim of this symposium is to deepen the working hypothesis that "system maintains culture, culture strengthens system" which has been kept as a problematic area for many years in Japanese Lesson Study. This is done from the viewpoint of using assessment to improve pedagogy by inviting Catherine Lewis as a discussant. The mixed method is used, the quantitative data re-analysis of the distinctive school survey in the 1980s and the narrative data as its follow-up study in pursuit of the extension of the data collection framework. In particular, we take to Chikuzam and Horikawa elementary schools. The findings are demonstrated by diagram (reinforced/ balanced loop/ layer, process) based on a system dynamics (including time). It leads to the world view of Japan that is different from abroad and a foothold as the synergy of knowledge creating company (Nonaka 1995) and schools that learn (Senge 2012).

Summary

Lewis (2002) also remarks that if formative assessment practices, or indeed any innovative practices are to be developed and continuously improved using LS, educators need to agree upon a shared goal for improvement. The process of evidence collection is at the very core of the formative assessment process and of Japanese LS. There was actually an increasing momentum amongreseachers to re-focus so far Japanese “LS” taken it for granted from school-wide contexts by focusing School Research Theme (SRT) in 1980s (see diagram 1).Therefore, SRT supports the matter of implementing Assessment for Learning (AfL), which might receive much attention from abroad.

The authors have taken to a couple of schools as mysterious wonderland tried to collect transcripts of these interviews, conversations, and observations to make visible the relationship between system and culture as "multiple layers" (see diagram 2).

Theoretical framework is Crossouard et al 2012), Stigler et al (1999, 2016), Senge et al. (2012), Nonaka (1995), Wierzbicka (1996)

Research question is

Q1 Why sustainable research and scaling-up could be possible for long years ?

Q2 Why sustainable research for whole child could be possible for long years?

Method(s) are mixed method using the narrative data as its follow-up study in pursuit of the extension of the data collection framework. In particular, we take to Chikuzam and Horikawa elementary schools.

Results are as follows. The each of SRTs of Chikuzan and Horikawa1985 was “Research on teaching that develops students as individuals and a group (Cooperative teaching practices)” and “Children who search for a better way of life and apply it in their daily living” In comparison with a behaviourist cultural script in the UK (Elliott 2018), Japanese teachers maintain a social bond with their students, based on the (Buddhist) theory that the stronger the bond, the more successfully young learners will become zenjinteki (well-rounded)in character and reproduce similar communities around them (Arimoto et al 2018)(see diagram 3,4).It could trace more than 30 years experiences of policy transition from behaviourist cultural script to OLE (Open Learning Environments) as problem awareness.

Conclusion and discussion

All depends on synergie between Japanese uchi ((inside, us, in-group, inside home) and soto(outside,other groups,outside the home) culture and staff redeployment (turnover) of personnel located within same regions as civil servant, and “compassion in a respect for the inherent dignity of life - our own and others” culture.

the individual contributions are follows.

Arimoto overviews nation-wide movement of policy and practice, quoting Lewis and give alternative diagram.

Yamamoto as an outside researcher demonstrates how unique practices in Akita are and suggests the possibility of presenting a school model that strengthens sustainable teachers learning to the world.

Hamada as a former principal diggs deeper an Akita school case based on his own remarkable experiences from inside-out approach.

Terabayashi tackles the question from Horikawa case answering “Why sustainable research for whole child could be possible for long years” ?

Lewis takes a role of discussant for our two case studies.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Due to the personal and social processes related to the collective consciousness, the points of departure for Japanese people differ from those of their 'western' counterparts. That said, the assessment system has a great deal of internal accountability. Students are accountable to their peers, teachers and parents. Teachers are accountable to each other in a system in which all the teachers in the school know just how good or bad the other teachers’ performance is because of the Lesson-Study initiatives. These local, school-level development initiatives saw the emergence of innovative school-wide teacher-developed assessment tools. Needs to Strengthen compound multifaceted eyes in the various levels (annual, term, unit, and on-the-fly as well as classroom practice to school practice, local government policy, national level policy, etc. school-wide assessment and pedagogy has been supported by Japanese school cultural contexts” by discussing with colleagues (Mary James, John Elliott etc). Eventually the term appeared of “pedagogical leadership- Neriage, with-it-ness- Kizuki, collective consciousness- Kankei (uchi and soto, shudan ishiki, En/Jyo)” , clarifying gray-zone of Assessment for learning, informal and non-formal learning on student learning with Japan-specific vertical loop with parents. a sympathetic relationship using metaphor and visual image with mutual trust and Japanese cultural scripts.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

This study introduces a case of teacher community in a school, hereon named Chikuzan elementary school, in the city of Akita, in which all teachers engaged in Lesson Study (LS) to share their commitment to the school issues. They have realized collaborative teaching and student-centered learning for more than 50 years. Within the staff room raising the philosophy of “Concentric Education and Fusional Cooperation” on the wall, many informal conversations have made common goals to improve their students learning and their own practices. The relationship that can support each other has motivated teachers to learn autonomously for their responsibilities and they were able to enjoy learning from each other. The intrinsic value of professional learning community emerged and created Chikuzan elementary school culture.

Therefore, teachers who worked as middle leaders at this school became principals or administrators after, and spread this culture to other schools, developing as it went. The dissemination of Chikuzan elementary school culture has influenced whole Akita prefecture. It was suggested that the school culture which values lessons through LS could function as one axis beyond the difference of each school component.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

From the inside view, there are three characteristics of TT in Chikuzan Elementary School. The first is the collaboration between the research director and the principal. The subject matter of the research is formulated based on the principal's "management policy", but the final decision is left to the "consensus" of the teacher. A series of Lesson Studies are sponsored by a research director who supports it. The second is the collaboration between teachers. Lessons are planned and implemented mainly by teachers in the school year. The results are verified and shared through in-house Lesson Study meetings. The third is the collaboration between past and future teachers. Past lesson practical knowledge is dug up, is utilized, and is inherited to the next generation around the study room.

If you look at the in-house research bulletins of successive generations, you can read a consistent research attitude. That is the attitude of learning from children. By carefully reading "the facts of children's learning", Chikuzan Elementary School has optimized the teaching method and form, and has evolved into the optimization of the curriculum and the education management. It is thought that it became the driving force of 50 years of TT continuation.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Horikawa elementary school is an unique school that is located in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Quality lessons were actually actively found and researched 90 years ago in Japan. Horikawa elementary school has still kept this tradition. Horikawa elementary school has held Education Research Conferences over 82 times (once every year) and has accepted teacher training students for over 95 years. In 1959, they published the first book “Study Lesson”. Since then 10 books have been published. They apply bottom-up research, in which the practice and research is conducted by actual teachers and still to this day teachers are conducting this. There are lots of in-house publications and documents and also detailed records of children's change through teacher’s assistance, telling that how the student and teacher both renew their learning from reflection. The core objective behind scenes is for ‘the growth of the individual’. This focus on ‘developing the self’, but rather something Western culture emphasizes. However, Horikawa’s approach behind school leadership has a uniqueness that Western culture does not stress, that is perceiving group study as ‘by understanding others, one reflects on the self’. This emphasis on trying to ‘understand others’

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Culture of evaluation, Japanese cultural scripts

Becoming a lesson study facilitator: a good practice!

Workshop137Zwanie van Rij, University of Groningen, Teacher Training Insitute, Netherlands; Saskia Tuenter, University of Groningen, Teacher Training Insitute, Netherlands

On Fifth 1Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In this workshop, we share the learnings, insights and materials we developed during the process of training eleven secondary school teachers in the region of the city of Groningen to become facilitators of Lesson Study. Our aim is to give workshop participants insight in and tools for establishing Lesson Study as a sustainable way of professionalization of teachers. Therefore, participants of this workshop will be actively engaged in using at least three of the didactical tools we have used during this Lesson Study facilitator training and intervision. Facilitators of Lesson Study who took part in this training programme indicate the following output. The training programme gave them

more knowledge about how to supervise a Lesson Study team,

the didactical tools that were used during this training and intervision were very useful for the meetings with their Lesson Study team

sharing experiences with fellow Lesson Study facilitators enhanced their self-efficacy.

Summary

Background

Facilitating Lesson Study seems beneficial to maximize the learning of the participants (Lewis, J.L. 2016). However, supervising a Lesson study team in a Dutch context proofs to be challenging (De Vries, Verhoef & Goei, 2016). Teachers in Western countries mostly work individually in their classrooms and do not often discuss their experiences nor work collaboratively. Therefore, whenever teachers start working with Lesson Study a change in mindset and developing specific skills is often needed. For that reason, in the Netherlands, the consortium Lesson Study NL (https://lessonstudynl.nl/) recommends schools to assign facilitators to supervise Lesson Study teams and developed a Lesson Study facilitators training for this purpose. Eleven secondary school teachers in the region of the city of Groningen were trained from September 2018 until July 2019 to become facilitators of Lesson Study by two external Lesson Study facilitators.

Goal of the Lesson Study facilitator training

In this training programme, we train teachers Lesson Study facilitating skills on how to enhance teacher learning through Lesson Study. By training facilitators working at schools, we support schools to be self-sufficient by creating in-house expertise on facilitation and enable schools to sustain Lesson Study as an organizational routine.

Good practice training facilitators of Lesson Study in the region of Groningen (September 2018 - July 2019)

The participants were eleven Dutch teachers who had been actively performing in at least one Lesson Study cycle themselves under supervision of a Lesson Study facilitator. Two external Lesson Study facilitators (from the university of Groningen teacher training institute) trained Lesson Study facilitators from five different secondary schools, one University and one educational institute,

The learning objectives of this training were to gain knowledge and understanding of the Lesson Study process and its backgrounds, enhancing Lesson Study experience, expand their facilitating skills, and developing team-coaching skills.

During the training, we highlighted theory and practice of Lesson Study and all facets of the five roles of the facilitator (De Vries, Verhoef & Goei, 2016).

After three full days of training, participants started supervising a Lesson Study team at their school. During this process, participants met regularly (at least three times) during four months for intervision meetings. At these meetings, they also acquired hands-on knowledge and skills about supervising a Lesson Study team. At the end of the training, the participants received a certificate with which Lesson Study NL accredits them.

During this training, we developed in co-creation with the participants many materials to enhance the skills of Lesson Study facilitators. Tthe participants were able to use most of these materials while supervising Lesson Study teams at their schools.

We are looking forward to actively share some of our findings and materials with WALS2019 participants in a workshop during WALS2019 in Amsterdam.

Lesson Study and the facilitator
hands-on materials, Lesson Study facilitator, Training

Sesame street comes to town: enacting social-emotional learning via inside-out Lesson Study in Japan

Paper106Noriyuki Inoue, Waseda University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Japan

On Fifth 3Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

Sesame Workshop, the creator of the TV program Sesame Street, developed the Dream Save Do (DSD) curriculum to enrich students’ social emotional development and piloted it a Japanese elementary school. In the process, teachers engaged in lesson study (LS) cycles as they collaborated with each other and fine-tuned the curriculum. This on-going study investigated the effectiveness of the curriculum through class observations and interviews with the teachers, the students, the school leadership and the Sesame staff involved in the implementation process. The qualitative data analysis indicated that the students developed a wide range of non-cognitive skills with a strong sense of relevance to their daily lives. The teachers also enjoyed teaching DSD classes and were empowered by the LS process while functioning as the key players of the educational innovation in the inter-organizational collaboration. The study implies the importance of employing the inside-out approach to lead educational innovation to success.

Summary

Sesame Workshop, well-known as the creator of the children’s TV program Sesame Street and its research-based approach to shape educational programs (Fisch & Truglio, 2001), developed a new school curriculum called Dream Save Do (DSD) to enrich students’ social emotional development and implemented it in 9 countries worldwide. In Japan, the DSD curriculum was implemented in an elementary school as a pilot to prepare for nation-wide dissemination of the curriculum. The Japanese version of the DSD curriculum involved each class that made use of a short video story of Sesame Street characters, from which the teacher would ask students an important question on daily lives and facilitate open-ended discussions among students such as how to make friends who have different language backgrounds, valuing strengths of team members in collaborative endeavors and how to create concrete plans for achieving their goals, etc. all of which were crafted to promote students’ social-emotional development.

In the implementation process, the teachers at the pilot school engaged in multiple cycles of lesson study (LS) institutionalized at the school as the teachers, the school leadership and the Sesame Street Japan staff closely communicated to define and modify the curriculum. The curriculum was introduced with enough space for teachers to tailor the DSD curriculum in the ways that meet the needs of the students. The Sesame staff were available to help teachers give a final touch to the curriculum as teachers served as the main agent to make the final decision on the curriculum details. This study assessed the effectiveness of the curriculum through video-taped observations of 10 DSD classes, interviews with the teachers, the students, the school leadership, the district personnel and the Sesame staff.

The triangulated data analysis indicated that the students developed a wide range of non-cognitive skills with a strong sense of relevance to their daily lives. The students enjoyed learning in DSD classes, especially open-ended discussions to share their ideas and learned important life lessons that they felt essential for their future. The teachers also enjoyed teaching the DSD curriculum and were empowered by the LS process with a sense of autonomy. They felt that the DSD curriculum could promote whole person development of their students in the ways that the existing Japanese curriculum had never addressed. The interviews with the school leadership, the district personnel and the Sesame staff revealed that DSD curriculum was implemented in a systematic and flexible manner in the form of lesson study collaborations among teachers as well as cross-organizational collaborations among the pilot school, the school district and the Sesame Workshop Japan.

The study implies the importance of employing the “inside-out approach” to actualize educational innovation in a school context where practitioners (i.e., teachers) play the main roles at the center of educational innovation and make important decisions for their educational practices based on their internal understanding of the context.

References

Fisch, S. M., & Truglio, R. T. (Eds.) (2001). "G" is for "growing": Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, N.J: Erlbaum.

and policy aspects of sustainable Lesson Study, Leadership, management
Educational innovation, Sesame Street,

Improving classrooms’ social safety with bullying role inventory and Lesson Study

Paper268Tirza Bosma, VU Amsterdam, Learn academy, Netherlands

On Fifth 3Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This paper addresses the use of Lesson Study (LS) within the context of bullying, which is an novel context for LS. The main purpose in this project is to investigate how LS can support teachers in identifying problems in their classrooms’ social dynamics and—subsequently—develop interventions to address these problems. The effectiveness of a teacher (PD) program consisting of a student peer-report e-tool for diagnosing classroom social dynamics (Bullying Role Inventory; BRI) and LS is investigated. Results of the first cohort will be reported and discussed.

Summary

Since 2015, Dutch secondary schools are mandated by law to actively intervene in situations that compromise the health of their classrooms’ social dynamics (i.e., bullying). Sixty-one antibullying programs are available on the Dutch market to support schools in establishing healthy classroom social dynamics (Wienke, Anthonijsz, Abrahamse, Daamen, & Nieuwboer, 2015). Only thirteen of these programs were evaluated as potentially effective in this regard, most of which are not directly suitable for secondary schools. Moreover, classrooms’ unique social dynamics further compromise the potential effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, bullying and victimization tend to only be reduced to a certain extent, with a best-case scenario of a roughly 20% reduction (Veenstra, 2014). Schools administrations experience deficiencies in their teachers’ ability to intervene in obstacles in their classrooms’ social dynamics and thus to establish a safe learning environment for students. There seem to be two gaps in teachers’ abilities to meet students’ needs in this respect: (1) limited insight in their classroom’s social dynamics, and (2) limited knowledge of, and experience with, designing effective interventions tailored to their classrooms’ unique social dynamics. [quotrightB?]¨

Responding to these caveats, the present study evaluates the effectiveness of teacher professional development (PD) program “BRI-LS” consisting of: (1) Bullying Role Inventory (BRI) a student peer-report e-tool that supports teachers in visually diagnosing classroom social dynamics (Pronk, & Goossens, 2016), and (2) Lesson Study (LS). The LS model used in this PD program is based on the Dutch LS model as described by De Vries, Verhoef, and Goei (2016). To what extent does teachers’ competence with regards to identifying obstacles in their classrooms’ social dynamics and intervening in response to these obstacles grow as a result of participating in the BRI-LS program geared towards enhancing classrooms’ social safety?

Method

Based on pre-intervention BRI assessment in the classrooms of five Dutch secondary schools, LS-teams of four teachers were formed for a subset of nine classrooms (Nteacher = 36). An equal control condition was recruited. Pre- and post-intervention competence in diagnosing and intervening in classroom social dynamics (teachers) are assessed as well as classroom social climate (students).

Result

Teacher competence in diagnosing and intervening in their classroom’s social dynamics is expected to increase and students are expected to evaluate their classrooms’ social climate more positively in the BRI-LS condition only. The BRI-LS program is still running in the participating schools and the post-intervention data still being collected and analyzed.

Discussion

Pre-intervention data have been collected and BRI-LS is rolled out in the participating schools. Teachers evaluate the program as helpful in developing their ability to diagnose and intervene in their classrooms’ dynamics. Post-intervention data will be presented at the conference and are collected in the end of spring of 2019. LS is traditionally used to strengthen teachers’ pedagogical skills and pedagogical content knowledge. In this study, it’s focus shifts to interpreting and intervening in social dynamics, thus broadening its applicability in educational contexts.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Classroom dynamics, Professional development, School safety

The impact of multi-cycle Lesson Study on professional development in a special school in Singapore

Paper45Araxes Ang, Karen Zainal, Natalie Peters, Association for Persons with Special Needs, Singapore

On Fifth 3Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

This paper illustrates how successive cycles of lesson study by a group of special education teachers in Singapore had a significant impact on their professional development and lesson design to meet the needs of students with MID. Driven by the desire to enhance their competence, three cycles of lesson study were carried out over three years. A qualitative review of lesson designs and teacher surveys and reflections revealed a) progressive efforts to address the gaps in student learning, b) creativity in adapting evidence-based strategies and c) the shift of lesson design from mainly teacher-directed approaches to inquiry-based learning and backward goal-setting. The results of this paper show the importance of a collaborative effort on professional development. Learning impacted not only lesson design in the classroom but accorded the group the realization that they had a voice and autonomy over curriculum design, serving as an impetus for sustainability of lesson study.

Summary

Driven by the desire to enhance their competence in lesson design and instructional practices, a group of special education teachers in Singapore decided to embark on lesson study. According to a study by Hunter and Back (2011), lesson study can be a tool to form “a development of networks of teachers that focus on student learning and facilitate reflection on practice” (pp. 112). This then led the researchers of this paper to the question: How do a series of lesson study, carried out over 3 years, have a sustainable impact on teachers’ professional development to improve on lesson design in a special education setting?

Lesson study in the Literacy department of APSN Tanglin School was initially conducted in 2017 to attempt to teach higher order thinking skills in reading comprehension, such as questioning and inferencing, to students with mild intellectual disability (MID). The team based the research lessons on research-based strategies, proven successful when conducted in the mainstream setting. However, a mismatch between student learning profiles and pedagogy was observed, resulting in student disengagement. Assessment of student learning remained an issue which they grappled with.

Subsequently, the approach to lesson planning and design was modified to become more student-centred. The team would start the cycle with a pre-research lesson to ascertain student pre-requisites and present level of performance. Case students were identified. Although lessons were pitched at an accessible level, there was a challenge in sustaining student engagement and participation throughout the lesson.

With the hindsight of the previous two cycles, the team took a radically different approach to lesson design. Firstly, to heighten student engagement, there was a shift from teacher-directed instruction to inquiry-based learning with the end goals in mind. Secondly, the context of the lesson was designed to be meaningful, relevant and age-appropriate to enable students’ investment and ownership over their learning. Lastly, Universal Design for Learning principles were incorporated to account for students of diverse abilities.

A qualitative review of lesson designs and teacher surveys and reflections revealed progressive efforts to address the gaps in student learning found after each cycle. Next, there was an enhanced creativity in lesson design to cater to diverse learning needs of students, such as incorporating technology and modifying strategies. Finally, there was a shift of lesson design from mainly teacher-directed approaches to inquiry-based learning. The success of these changes culminated in a design of a curricula unit using the backward goal-setting approach to teach higher order reading comprehension skills.

Successive lesson study cycles have enhanced both individual lesson design as well as departmental curriculum design. A multi-cycle approach to lesson study, initiated and sustained by the same group of teachers, allowed for greater continuity and depth in professional development. Learning from lesson study impacted not only lesson design in the classroom but accorded the group the realization that they had a voice and autonomy over curriculum design, serving as an impetus for sustainability of lesson study.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Professional development, Special education

Constructing simple past tense sentences by using ‘flip-open syntax window’

Paper308Ayu Shuhaidah Mohd Yusof, SK Bandar Baru Batang Kali, Hulu Selangor District Education Office, Malaysia

Paris '69Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The goal of this study is to enable 37 year 5 pupils to construct complete Simple Past Tense Sentences (SPTS) by using ‘Flip-Open Syntax Window’ (FOSW) . This is an experiential study comprises of 37 pupils from a year 5 class from a school in Hulu Selangor, Selangor. The pupils constructed simple Past Tense sentences without comprehending the syntax of a sentence. They were given a few pictures with words for them to construct Simple Past Tense sentences as a pre-test. This study indicated that there is a positive effect of using the ‘Flip-Open’ Syntax Window in constructing simple sentences. The teacher used the window as a tool to understand the syntax and construct a proper correct Simple Past Tense sentence. The data was collected using the classroom observation. The implication of this study showed that pupils were able to overcome their problem by using this window as a tool.

Summary

Writing skill is one of four major English Language skills. However, it is the most difficult skill to be mastered especially for non-native speaking pupils in constructing Simple Past Tense Sentences (SPTS). ‘Flip-Open Syntax Window’ (FOPW) was initiated to solve the problem. The pupils always having difficulties in placing the correct words according to correct syntax. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyse the effect of using FOPW in helping the pupils to construct correct SPTS. The participants of this study were (N= 37) pupils of 5 Zuhrah in SK Bandar Baru Batang Kali, Selangor. This study was conducted through cooperative learning method in which the pupils need to discuss with their shoulder partner to build correct sentences. The data was collected during the English Language classroom teaching and learning. Throughout the teaching and learning process, we found out that the pupils were having problem in identifying the correct syntax for the words as well as constructing SPTS. The data was collected through pre and post test. The research methods were observation, document analysis and video recording. Each pupils were given a few sets of pictures comprises of words and placing them into correct syntax window. Besides constructing the sentences individually, they did that through cooperative learning too. The result showed that by using the FOSW the pupils managed to identify the parts of speech of each words, hence, to place the words according their correct syntax and construct correct SPTS. It helped increasing the result and enhancing the pupils’ understanding of correct syntax

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Constructing Simple Past Tense Sentences, Cooperative Learning, Flip-Open Syntax Window

Using Lesson Study approach to Enhance Secondary Students’ CL Oracy in Networked Learning Community

Paper348Dongmei Li, Academy of Singapore Teachers, Singapore

Paris '69Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

Teachers across different types of secondary schools form the networked learning community (NLC) to craft the lesson collaboratively, implement it in their own schools with the lesson observation by the NLC members. The NLC members reflect the lesson design together after each delivery so that the students’’ oracy are enhanced. The teachers in the NLC learn with one and another, from one and another and on behalf others. Meanwhile, they bring the learning points back to their own schools and share with the colleagues. In the ways, teachers improve the professional development in the learning community.

Summary

In Singapore, teachers from 5 different secondary schools gather together to form the networked learning community (NLC) based on their common interest on sharpening the teaching ideas to enhance the students’ mother tongue language oracy. They meet timely to study the syllabus carefully, and craft the lesson plan collaboratively. Then they carry out the lesson plan in their respective school and each time the NLC members are invited to observe the lesson. After each observation the NLC members have the post-conference to do the reflection to revise the lesson plan.

In the project, teachers explore the teaching ideas together, meanwhile they learn together, also they bring the learning points back to their schools and share with the colleagues. At the same time they find the ways to conquer the challenges in terms of the time constrain and find the effective ways to collaborate efficiently.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Lesson Study Approach, Networked Learning Community, Students’ Oracy

Exploring teaching of how to adapt a message for an unknown receiver

Paper65Britta Larsson Lindberg, Jönköping University, HLK, Sweden

Paris '69Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The present study draws on data from a learning study, which was carried out with a group of English teachers working in a school for children with dyslexia and neuropsychiatric disorders. Whereas Swedish students, in general, are less proficient in writing than in speaking, the participants of this study are less experienced in writing, which makes the development of explicit teaching particularly important to explore, which is the aim of the study. The results show that the relation between text and receiver could be made discernible when tasks were designed according to the principles of variation theory, varying critical aspects in different patterns of variation to make certain aspects discernible to the students. The tasks were carefully designed in order to initiate the students’ exploring of the text and receiver simultaneously, using their own experience.

Summary

The present study aims at exploring how to make the receiver visible to students. The receiver is assumed to forward communicative skills in writing (Hyland, 2011). The level of English proficiency of Swedish students is relatively high, but the results for written production are lower than the results for reading and listening, according to a European survey (European commission, 2012). The study aims at producing knowledge useful for professional teachers, teaching second or foreign languages in general, and students with writing difficulties in particular.

The study was carried out at a school for students with dyslexia and neuropsychiatric disorders outside Stockholm, Sweden. The participating students were 14-16 years of age and are less experienced in writing both in English and their mother tongue, Swedish, compared to peers.

The theoretical framework of the study is variation theory (Marton, 2015). According to variation theory, learning means discerning more differentiated aspects of an object of learning. With critical aspects as a point of departure, tasks were designed in order for the students to develop a more differentiated discerning of how to adapt a text to an unknown receiver. The data of the learning study were analysed, with the help of variation theory, to find what was made possible to discern when the lessons were enacted in certain ways.

The study attempts to answer the research question; How can instruction be designed, according to principles of variation theory, and enacted in order to develop the students’ skills in adapting a text to an unknown receiver?

Data were collected from a learning study, carried out with a group of teachers, who designed, enacted and analysed the lessons iteratively. Tasks designed were tested in five cycles with five different groups. The enactment of the tasks lead to the critical aspects being specified and further defined, which in its turn lead to further elaboration of the tasks and the lesson design.

The results show that by contrasting messages and parts of messages with the same content, but for different receivers, known and unknown, the receiver could be made discernible to the students. Contrasting different ways to express an invariant content for the same receiver could make the relation between specific aspects of the text and the receiver discernible.

The relation between the text and the receiver is not visible in the text itself. In order for the students to discern how to adapt a text to a receiver, they needed to understand the concept of the receiver and discern the relation between aspects of the text and the receiver simultaneously. These relations were made discernible to the students by tasks, designed according to principles of variation theory, that initiated the students’ exploration of aspects of content and courtesy, where the students jointly with the teacher discerned the receiver as an organizing principle behind the text.

Learning Studies
English as a foreign language, Second language, Writing instruction

Designing pisa-like mathematics problems using asian games context through lesson study

Paper294Ratu Ilma Indra Putri, Universitas Sriwijaya, Mathematics and Science, Indonesia

Rome '96Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

As informed by PISA results, the mathematical literacy achievement of Indonesian students at the content of uncertainty and data is still at the lower level. Asian Games 2018 was conducted in Indonesia, so it is a good example as a context in learning mathematics. This research aims to develop sets of valid and practical PISA-like mathematics problems using context in Asian Games. It uses both lesson study between researcher and teachers and the design research method. The research subjects are students aged 15 years in the five Indonesian pilot schools in Palembang. The data collection techniques used are the walkthrough, observation, interview, and test. The data were analysed using the descriptive method. The results of this research are 36 items PISA-like mathematics problems content of uncertainty and data using contexts in Asian Games. All of them are valid, practice and have potential effects to the mathematics literacy competence.

Summary

As informed by PISA results, the mathematical literacy achievement of Indonesian students at the content of uncertainty and data is still at the lower level. Therefore, it’s important to give mathematics problems to the students using PISA-like problems. Asian Games 2018 was conducted in Indonesia, so it is a good example as a context in learning mathematics. PISA is an international assessment to see academic ability in reading, mathematics and science literacy held every three years. Indonesian students’ performance in solving high level mathematical problems is lower than most of the other participants in PISA. Indonesian ministry of education respond this problem by developing a new curriculum what so called curriculum of 2013 in order to ensure that every student acquires the intended knowledge to be able to compete at the international level.

Putri (2013), reveals that an approach that is inline with the 2013 curriculum is PMRI approach. Zulkardi and Putri(2010), stated that PMRI is one approach that uses contextual. Charmila (2016), reported that, it is important to integrate the context in the surrounding environment. In 2018, Indonesia hosted the 18th Asian Games. There are several studies that developed PISA like-problem using Asian Games context, such as (Rahayu, 2017), (Roni, 2017), and (Gunawan, 2017).

Different with those studies, the researcher developed PISA like problems that using many contexts. The purpose of this research is to produce a valid and practical PISA math problem 36 items PISA-like mathematics problems content of uncertainty and data using a weight-lifting, swimming sports, football, table tennis, long jump, bike, aquatic, volleyball, taekwondo contexts in Asian Games.

This research uses the design research method with type development studies which consist of two phases that is preliminary and formative evaluation which include: self-evaluation, one to one and expert review, small group, and field test (Zulkardi, 2002; Akker, 2006). In accordance with the provisions of the PISA framework subjects in this study are 15-year-old students in the five Indonesian pilot schools in Palembang. This research begins by describing how the developed problem to be valid. Therefore, the subjects used in this stage are 3 students who have various capabilities such as high ability, moderate and low. In this case, expert review is a PISA expert. This validation test focuses on three characteristics (content, constructs, and languages). At this stage also evaluated the appearance and use of questions to see the responses, assessments, and practicality of these questions and the results as input to revise the design question to the next stage. The last prototype is tested with the subject of research by analyzing the results of student answers.

The data collection techniques used are the walkthrough, observation, interview, and test. The data were analyzed using the descriptive method. The results of this research are 36 items PISA-like mathematics problems content of uncertainty and data using a weight-lifting, swimming sports, football, table tennis, long jump, bike, aquatic, volleyball, taekwondo contexts in Asian Games. All of them are valid, practice and have potential effects to the mathematics literacy competence.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Design Research, Lesson Study, PISA like Mathematics problem

Teacher dialogue about mathematical practices occurring in the debriefing phase of Lesson Study

Paper4Gabriel Matney, Miranda Fox, Scott Knapke, Mackenzie Murray, Bowling Green State University, School of Teaching and Learning, United States of America

Rome '96Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to share research on the dialogue of teachers related to the Standards for Mathematical Practice during the post-lesson debrief of an Open-Approach Lesson Study. Lesson Study debriefs were recorded and transcribed for teacher teams conducting Lesson Study to improve students’ mathematics proficiency. Inductive analysis was used to find similarities and differences between teacher dialogues about the SMPs. Conclusions and implications about teacher’s dialogue are shared.

Summary

This study focuses on teacher reflection on the Mathematical Practices (MPs) within the post-lesson debrief of an Open-Approach Lesson Study. The study allows the mathematics education community to gain knowledge about teacher dialogue, promotion, and understanding related to the MPs (CCSSI, 2010). Looking at the ways in which teachers discuss MPs and build professional knowledge as a team is necessary to continue the professionalization of teachers in regards to knowledge and implementation of mathematical practices among students. Specifically, knowing whether the teachers are addressing the MPs, discussing them with fidelity, or showing common misconceptions about the MPs is important to note when studying the post-reflections of a lesson study group. The research is framed by the notions of lesson study, mathematical practice, and professional dialogue. We define these three based on the literature and proceed with inductive analysis (Hatch 2002) derived from these domains. Lesson study generally begins with teachers seeking to address a difficultly and researching what has been done before in hope of overcoming it through their teaching. Achieving lessons that promote students engagement in mathematical practices is often one of the challenges teacher teams work on in the United States. As shown in Figure 1, lesson study follows a cycle with the specific features of researching and planning, teaching and observing, reflection, and often re-teaching a revised lesson (Lewis & Tsuchida, 1999). In this study we frame mathematical practices as defined by the Common Core State Standards Initiative in 2010. As seen in figure 2, the MPs consist of eight statements describing skills and habits that teachers should seek to instill in their students. The MPs are currently accepted by the majority of the United States (CCSSI, 2010). Lastly, we consider the idea of dialogue according to Bohm’s (1996) description in which dialogue is a means of finding a solution where everyone is working together to better the situation. From this framework we considered the following questions:

What are some common teacher interpretations of the SMPs?

Are certain SMPs brought up more or less than others?

Are the SMPs discussed more or less in the second cycle of lesson study, after teachers have engaged in PD about the SMPs?

There were 68 teacher participants comprising 16 lesson study teams in the study. Teachers worked with professionals on knowing the MPs and/or conducted electronic and text based research on promoting the MPs through instruction. Figure 3 shows the step-by-step process taken when analyzing the 16 post-lesson discussions. Impressions drawn from data include those involving mathematical sense making, problem solving, and modeling. Due to the qualitative nature of the impressions they will be shared more completely in the full paper presentation. Findings revealed that teachers struggle to understand the meaning and intent of several MPs and furthermore ways to promote them with students during implementation. Further research on how lesson study can support teachers’ promotion of the MPs with students is needed.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Debreifing, Dialogue, Mathematical Practices

CANCELLED: Designing tasks through learning study to prepare prospective teachers to teach primary mathematics

Paper46Pernilla Mårtensson, Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, Sweden

Rome '96Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In this study, we examine how 41 prospective teachers designed and modified mathematical tasks to enhance primary students' learning. The prospective teachers took part of a five-week course in a teacher education program in Sweden, in which learning study were established to deepen the awareness about the relation between instruction and student learning. The learning study cycles were framed within variation theory and mathematics education research reports. Data were collected during the course and consists of the prospective teachers’ written reflections about task refinements through the cycles. Our purpose with the study, is to disseminate in what ways the tasks were modified, with a special interest on the patterns of variation and critical aspects used. Furthermore, we will discuss the results in relation to crafting, that is the importance of theoretical underpinnings for producing tasks that can be communicated to other teachers.

Summary

Today, it seems like learning study (Pang & Marton, 2003) has become to play a valuable role not just in supporting professional development for in-service teachers but also for prospective teachers (PT), as the approach or modifications of it is an integral part in initial teacher education around the world.

Recently, there has been a number of studies reporting on experiences of implementations of learning study in initial teacher education. There are good grounds for expecting the approach to offer rich opportunities for PTs to understand the complexity of the relation between teaching and learning (Durden, 2018; Cheng, 2014; Wood, 2013). Furthermore, it is quite possible for PTs to learn the most crucial principles of variation theory even though a course lasts a few weeks (Royea & Nicol, 2018). According to variation theory—commonly used to frame the learning study activities such as designing and analyzing teaching—learning is a function of discerning patterns of variation and invariance in critical aspects of an object of learning (Pang & Marton, 2003).

Although many benefits and promising results about learning study in initial teacher education have been reported, there have been calls for a more explicit focus on how PTs employ variation theory as a design and analytical tool for lesson planning, teaching, and evaluation of student learning (Royea & Nicol, 2018; Larssen et al., 2018). Relating this call to questions about the kind of public knowledge that can be created through learning study, we are working with the assumption that task design and modifications based on variation theory (Kullberg, Runesson & Mårtensson, 2014) may be crucial for generating knowledge to be used by other teachers. The aim of this study is to explore in what ways PTs modify mathematical tasks during a five-week mathematics education course, in which leaning study is incorporated.

 

The course is the last of four 7.5 credit mathematics education courses in a primary teacher education program at Jönköping University in Sweden, and it consists of two intervention cycles closely following the learning study steps of planning, teaching, analyzing, and revising lessons. Our partnership schools provide the PTs access to teach their research lessons to primary students.

Data was collected at the end of the course in 2018 and consists of 41 PTs’ individual reports on teaching experiences, student learning outcomes, and further improvements of the tasks used in the lessons. In the first step of analysis, we read the reports to get a holistic view of the material. The second step was to identify different categories of task modifications, focusing on the patterns of variation and critical aspects used in the tasks. The categories that we found were; reducing irrelevant aspects, adding mathematical reasoning, adding a contrast to generalization, adding students’ prior knowledge, and adding representations. We will illustrate some of the categories and discuss in what way the modified tasks can be communicated to other teachers.

Learning Studies
Initial teacher education, Mathematics teaching, Task design

Implementation of lesson study in theology: translating abstract concept into daily practice

Paper226Sri Nurayu Mat Aris, Nadiah Tajuddin, Madrasah Wak Tanjong Al-Islamiah, Religious, Singapore

Skylounge 235Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

Islamic Theology, or Tawheed, has always been an important facet of Islamic education. Amidst its significance in developing morally-upright and spiritually-strong individuals, there lies a pedagogical challenge of bringing abstract theological concepts into tangible examples that are relatable to daily life.

Many teachers from the case school regard Tawheed as one of the challenging subjects to teach. Students, especially those in the elementary level, struggle to grasp abstract concepts related to the Divine, such as the names of God in Islam.

In this study, the case school attempts to unpack the misconception surrounding one of the names of God in Islam, which is, God is The Most Observing of the Seen and the Unseen. Data collection will focus on students’ discussion and explanations on the conceptual meaning and its application in daily life. Some insights on students’ discourse and sense-making patterns as well as instructional implications will also be presented.

Summary

The learning of Islamic Theology, or Tawheed, is an important facet of Islamic education in which fundamental Islamic beliefs are taught from a very early age. Amidst its significance in developing morally-upright individuals who are motivated by sound faith, there lies a pedagogical challenge of bringing abstract theological concepts into tangible examples that are relatable to students’ daily life.

For this reason, many teachers from the case school regard Tawheed as one of the challenging subjects to teach. Students, especially those in the elementary level, struggle to grasp abstract concepts related to the Divine, such as in the case of the names of God in Islam.

In this study, the case school attempts to unpack the misconception surrounding one of the names of God in Islam, which is, God (or Allah) is The Most Observing (in Arabic: “As-Syahid”). In this topic, students will be introduced to the concept of the seen (in Arabic: “Al-Ghaib”) and the unseen (in Arabic: “As-Syahadah”), in which Allah is The Most Observing of both. To be able to comprehend what is meant by ‘God is The Most Observing of the seen and the unseen’ as well as to transfer its meaning to one’s daily life is the crux of this study. With this belief being taught at a young age, the case school aims to instill modesty, humbleness, virtue among its students and develop the highest degree of respect for others and eventually be a blessings to all mankind.

Lesson study engages teachers’ knowledge management in the case school, a concept that will contribute to supporting overall school improvement. In other words, the case school believes that the concepts of lesson study and knowledge management lend themselves to the development of more positive school cultures by providing teacher autonomy, by enhancing problem-solving skills and finally, by enhancing accountability in teachers learning communities. The important thing was that teachers felt positive impact of collaboration between teachers such as building togetherness, sharing experience and expertise, and finally giving meaningful learning to student.

This study will also explore the use of various learning materials and cooperative learning approach in the teaching and learning of Tawheed. Data collection will focus on students groups discussion and explanations in the class. In this presentation we will be sharing some insights on students’ discourse and sense-making patterns. The instructional implications of teaching a highly abstract subject such as Tawheed will also be presented.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Cooperative, Culture, Meaningful

Study of consensus forming function obtained by classroom discussions in Tokkatsu

Paper250Katsuhiro Shimizu, Aichi University of Education, Japan

Skylounge 235Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to clarify the process by which Japanese children try to make consensus as much as possible using the opinions of everyone in classroom discussions of TOKKATSU (The Japanese Approach to Whole Child Education) through lesson analysis. And, it is to show the characteristic of classroom discussions of classroom activities in TOKKATSU.  

In this study, I will discuss classroom discussions of second grade elementary school students toward the creation of a meeting. And analyze how they put everyone's opinion together and achieved consensus building.  

As a result of their analysis, they do not use the majority rule to decide the decision from the multiple plans for the assembly. They considered the draft using the three questions of "righteousness" "truth" and "integrity," and tried to make consensus by making the best of everyone's opinions.

Summary

A Problem and purpose

Japan's TOKKATSU discusses specific issues with peers from the perspective of students themselves improving better than their lives. And it is The Japanese approach to whole child education which aims at acquiring the qualifications and ability as members of society by putting together and practicing the agreed thing. In particular, classroom discussions in classroom activities are central to TOKKATSU and are learning situations that foster consensus building and decision making skills. TOKKATSU is the basis of Japan's educational success and is a place to foster students autonomy (Lewis 1995)

Recently, TOKKATSU has begun to draw attention in countries such as Egypt and Mongolia, and a guidebook has been created to enable global educators to correctly understand the contents of TOKKATSU correctly. (Tsuneyoshi 2016)

However, there is no research report that examined the practice of teaching at elementary schools in Japan from the perspective of teaching methodology about the significance and function of TOKKATSU. In order to ensure that educators around the world can fully understand TOKKATSU, it is necessary to consider the practice of TOKKATSU from lesson analysis. Therefore, in this study, I will take up the second grader classroom discussions for the purpose of creating a meeting. And, I will clarify the characteristics of the classroom discussions of classroom activities in TOKKATSU by analyzing how they put everyone's opinion together and achieved consensus building.

Methods

I analyze discussion for the making of meeting held in classroom activities of the 2nd grader of elementary school from difference of three questions of "righteousness" "truth""integrity". Then, from the difference of the three questions, I will discuss the process leading to the consensus building through discussions, and clarify the consensus

building function in classroom activities.

Results and Discussion

In this research, the following was clarified by performing Lesson analysis from the difference of three questions. 1) The discussion begins with the questions “truth” and “legitimate”. 2) If solutions can not be derived from "truth" and "legitimateness" alone,then a discussion will be held to derive solutions using the "integrity" question. 3) Through these discussions, students with minority opinion also realize that their own opinion is respected and try to agree on an agreement.

Classroom discussions in TOKKATSU were held to respect minority opinions as much as possible, and it became clear that consensus building was achieved.

This study is a finding from one practice case and generality is not secured. In order to construct as a theory, I would like to further analyze practical cases and clarify the function of consensus building in TOKKATSU.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Classroom Discussions, Consensus Forming Function, TOKKATSU

Sharing and jumping tasks as a tool to develop students’ HOTS in mathematics learning

Paper332Risnanosanti Saleh, Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu, Mathematics Study Program, Indonesia

Skylounge 235Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

The learning component in the 2013 curriculum of 2017 revision, among of it is the development of students' Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). HOTS development can be implemented through providing tasks, both sharing and jumping. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of sharing and jumping tasks in developing student’s HOTS in mathematics learning. This study employed a validation type study design method with a realistic mathematics education (RME) approach. The learning activities which is conducted refer to the lesson study for learning community (LSLC). The results of the study indicated that students who had higher HOTS could finish jumping tasks well, whereas students who had lower HOTS had difficulty in completing tasks well. Yet, the collaborative learning applied makes low-ability students get help from their friends. So that at the end of the learning all students can complete the jumping task questions.

Summary

In Indonesia, the revised 2013 curriculum in 2017 mandates that teachers in implementing classroom learning activities must develop four components, namely: character education, 4C component, literacy, and HOTS. The development of HOTS in mathematics learning can be carried out by providing students tasks that are challenging, related to the context of everyday life, and working collaboratively. There are two types of tasks that can be provided to students, namely sharing and jumping tasks.

The research method employed was a validation study type design method, with learning steps based on the realistic mathematics education approach. Design research aimed at developing hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT) as an effort to improve the quality of learning. The developed HLT covers alleged learning activities and designs anticipation of students' thinking during the implementation of learning activities (Van den Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney, & Nieveen, 2006; Gravemeijer & Cobb, 2006).

The learning activities design begins with the teacher's explanation of how many small tiles are required to cover the classroom floor. This activity is provided based on the identification results of the students’ learning constraints when understanding the concept of a rectangular area. Demonstrations implemented by teachers at the beginning of learning are expected are able to increase the students’ demand and attractiveness in learning activities because the material studied is related to everyday life problems.

According to Muchindasari (2016) that in the learning process, students will achieve experience in building their own concepts if the learning is not a teacher-centered but student-centered. Therefore, the next learning activity is giving sharing tasks to students. At the end of this activity, almost all groups can achieve the specified size.

After doing discussion in sharing tasks activities, the next learning activity is students are provided the task of jumping as the post activity. The results of the study indicated that the time needed by students to work on the problem did not go as expected. At the beginning, there is no group that could answer the questions. But the teacher encourages students to collaborate for expressing their ideas so that at last eventually all groups can complete the tasks. when students working on jumping tasks, they learn in groups so that there is an exchange of ideas between students, they discuss each other and learn from each other. learning activities like this according to Masaaki (2014) are called collaborative learning. Collaborative learning can be a springboard for students who are low in achieving the expected solutions. therefore at the end of learning all students can complete the assignment given. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that giving sharing and jumping tasks to students can improve their high-level thinking skills (HOTS). However the task of sharing and jumping must be well designed to get maximum results.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
HOTS,

The importance of an interpretative framework used during a post-lesson discussion

Paper288Kazuya Kageyama, Hiroshima University, Japan

Straatsburg '88Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In a competency-based educational trend, teachers have not only to design a substantial learning environment but also to understand students’ activities. The objective of this research is to suggest the importance of an interpretative framework to comprehend an own curriculum emerged within a classroom community in order to make a post-lesson discussion meaningful.

Through literature review and analysis of the small-scale survey, we could identify various approaches to a lesson. However, the participants need not only to share the goal of the lesson but also to have an interpretative framework to comprehend what happened and emerged during the lesson. What should be included in an interpretative framework depends on the characteristics of a subject such as mathematics – the aspect of integrity – and the emergent object through classroom communication – the aspect of intimacy.

Summary

Introduction

Lesson study is a continuous, improving cycle for teaching skills, designing materials, understanding students and so on. A post-lesson discussion had by participants after conducting a research lesson is one of phases of the cycle to reflect all learning and teaching activities. However, it often seems not to be productive for them because of their different viewpoints and expectations. The difference is mainly caused by various experiences including teaching career, while it has a potential for teacher growing and a great improvement of a lesson. The objective of this research is to suggest the importance of an interpretative framework to comprehend an emergent mathematics curriculum through literature review and analysis of the small-scale survey to harmonize a post-lesson discussions.

Theoretical considerations

Various literature about teacher growing implies that it might be difficult to share values of a lesson among participants, but a post-lesson discussion could proceed on the question whether the lesson is good or not. On the one hand, through the analysis of exchanges of ideas between practicing teachers, Soma et al. (2016) summarized three criteria for a good lesson for them: clarity and achievement of the goal of the lesson, student’s understanding, and student’s positive engagement. On the other hand, the result of a small-scale questionnaire survey (n=8) the author conducted suggests that a lot of student teachers tend to focus on observable, excellent teaching techniques and the attraction of mathematics. The gap of attention on a lesson seems to be big, but it demonstrates the possibility of various approaches to the lesson.

In many cases, participants speak about a research lesson to each other while referring to a lesson plan described by a teacher, so one of viewpoints during a post-lesson discussion is whether the goal of the lesson is achieved well or not. However, as Evens (2014) points out, although following the same intended curriculum and using the same textbook, different teachers deal with different mathematics because they reconstruct it from their own viewpoints. Therefore, the participants need not only to share the goal of the lesson but also to have the common interpretative framework to comprehend what happened and emerged during the lesson, which is called emergent mathematics curriculum including both process and product (cf. Davis & Renert, 2014).

Discussion and conclusion

In a competency-based educational trend, practicing teachers attempt not only to design a substantial learning environment but also to understand students’ activities. What should be included in an interpretative framework depends on the characteristics of a subject such as mathematics – the aspect of integrity – and the emergent object through classroom communication – the aspect of intimacy. For example, some words and sentences on a textbook or used by a teacher are alien to students. They have to master them, while they attempt to introduce them into their everyday word use system. The alternative curriculum might emerge between the intended and implemented one, so we have to care about students’ activities besides an achievement of the goal of the lesson.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
A post-lesson discussion, An interpretative framework, Emergent curriculum

A change of the pre-lesson discussions in lesson studies as year-long collaborative inquiry

Paper346Natsumi Maeda, Japan, Eredita302, Japan

Straatsburg '88Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In Japan, most lesson studies are practiced as a part of school-based collaborative inquiry. It means that LS enhance not only the individual teacher learning but also school-level change. This research focus on the change of quality of the pre-lesson discussion (collaborative planning phase of lesson study). Data was gathered at a public elementary school which is study about moral education. In this paper, we use the 5 discussions of the lower-grades group. We analyzed them from two approaches: 1) the amount of teachers' remarks, 2) the contents of discussion. As a result, we could see some changes which suggests the buildup of LS as a school research. They became to discuss by using their shared experience, and talk about specific pupil's learning. However, it was undeniable that each teacher's role is fixed and the focus of discussion is depended on the teacher who provide their class for research lesson.

Summary

Most lesson studies (LS) in Japan have been practiced as a part of the school-wide collaborative inquiry. Teachers plan their research lesson under one consistent theme of whole of school, and like a relay, they make use of their findings to next research lesson. The final goal of LS is school improvement and curriculum development instead of make a best lesson plan with colleague. It means that teachers engage in LS not only as a learner but also as a member for school improvement. And then, it is said that this aspect of LS as a school research is important to enhance teachers' conflict which needed their learning (Kihara 2006).

As just described, LS as a school-based research bring a school-level learning beyond individual learning. In other word, if LS serve as a place of whole-school research, the quality of their discussion should be better each time. However, there is only a few papers reveal the effect of continual LS from this viewpoint. Therefore, we aim to observe how LS is change in a year in this study.

Data is gathered at a public elementary school in the Tokyo area, the research theme of LS of which is moral education. This theme is a one of the highest interest subjects among Japanese schools in recent years toward the curriculum guideline change of 2018.

We focused on the pre-lesson discussion for co-planning as a place which teachers' knowledge expressed, and recorded the all of discussions for a year. Although this school divides teachers to two LS groups (lower and higher), in this paper, we only treat the lower grade teacher's group (1st to 3rd grade). The discussions are held 5 times (6 research lessons), and 7-8 teachers attended. We recorded the conversation of all discussion and made a transcription.

In the first analysis, we cut the transcript into per 3sec to count their remarks. This analysis showed that their amount of remarks of each teachers and silence time were maintained constant between 5 discussions. It suggests that there is no change in the activation and participation level of LS through a year.

Furthermore, we analyzed the content of the discussion. We coded the all transcript to topics depend on the meaning and categorized them to examine the change of the quality of discussion. As a result, it suggested that teachers became to talk their ideas with shared experience and theory and more and more about the expected specific pupil's learning.

We can glimpse the buildup of LS as a school research in this result. However, it is undeniable that each teacher's role is fixed and the focus of discussion is depended on the teacher who provide their class for research lesson.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Collaborative inquiry, Pre-lesson discussion

Capturing Reflection-in-action Using Desk-top Teaching Simulation

Paper349Shun Nakamura, Waseda University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Japan

Straatsburg '88Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

Although researchers appreciate the importance of research on teacher’s knowledge creation process through teaching, reflection-in-action, it is difficult to collect data on teachers’ thought process during teaching. The purpose of this paper is to devise a method for capturing teachers’ reflection-in-action and explore its process during their teaching. In this study, we use Desk-top Teaching Simulation (DTS) where teachers simulate a lesson by using various kind of puppets that represent a teacher, students, desks, and other materials in classroom. We asked five teachers to conduct DTS and think aloud while simulating teaching. As a result, we found the types of the teachers’ reflective moments of teaching and the process of teachers’ learning. DTS can also be beneficial for joint planning of Lesson Study because it makes teachers’ ideas and anticipation visible to other teachers as well as teachers get feedback with each other through interaction in DTS.

Summary

Over the past few decades, a considerable number of studies have been made on teacher learning in terms of reflection since Schön(1983) articulated a theory of reflection. However, according to Mena Marcos & Tillema(2006), most of these studies have concentrated on teachers’ retrospective reflection, reflection on action, and only a few attempts have been made at reflective thinking that is embedded in teaching, reflection-in-action, which lies at the heart of Schön’s theory of reflection. To understand teachers’ reflection-in-action better, we need to explore how teachers notice unexpected events that initiate reflection-in-action, and create new knowledge while teaching.

Although researchers appreciate the importance of research on teacher’s reflection-in-action, it is difficult to collect data on teachers’ thought process during teaching. Most researchers have so far used the following two methods of inquiry: the retrospective report about thought process in the past and the think-aloud method during lesson observation, yet these methods cannot capture teachers’ here-and-now thinking in their own lesson. Therefore, looking into an alternative method for research is needed.

The purpose of this paper is to devise a method for capturing teachers’ reflection-in-action and explore its process during their teaching. In this study we use Desk-top Teaching Simulation (DTS), which was developed by Sakamoto(1980). In DTS, teachers simulate one lesson by using various kind of puppets that represent a teacher, students, desks, and other materials in classroom. One of teachers acts a teacher and the others act students. While DTS was originally introduced to help teachers to make sure how they proceed with a lesson, we apply it to a method for capturing teachers’ reflection-in-action during lesson. Furthermore, DTS can also be beneficial for joint planning of Lesson Study because it makes teachers’ idea and anticipation visible to other teachers as well as teachers get feedback with each other through interaction in DTS.

Participants were five teacher groups in Japanese elementary school. In DTS, 5 novice teachers were Teacher Player (TP) whereas 11 experienced teachers were Student Player (SP). Each teacher group works at same school and proceeds with following procedures: (1) using the puppets, TP teaches SPs on the basis of the lesson plan while SPs respond to TP’s action; (2) if TP sees a situation as unexpected or surprising, then he or she stops the lesson and tells what he or she is thinking. We recorded video and analyzed it in terms of how teachers reflect in action.

This study resulted in two key findings on the nature of teacher’s reflection-in-action. First, we propose a classification of types of unexpected or surprising situations in classroom: goal of the lesson, caring for the students, class management, story of the lesson, interpretation of teaching content, and student understanding. It is worth noticing that teachers make sense of these situations in terms of historical, relational, and normative point of view. Secondly, we found that even when teachers seem to act as planned from outsider’s point of view, they sometimes question their teaching in the back of their mind.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Reflective practice, Research on teacher thought process

Lesson Study – a research approach for or about teachers

Symposium94Ulla Runesson Kempe, Sweden; Jacqueliene Bulterman Bos, Christelijke Hogeschool Ede, Netherlands; Maria Andrée, Inger Eriksson, Stockholm University, Sweden

Tokio '95Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

In this symposium we will focus on how the true nature of lesson study (the Japanese Kyozai Kenkyuu tradition) may be lost in translation and transition into other cultural contexts and what is needed for the development of lesson study as research for, not about teachers. The overall perspective is how lesson study can be a collaborative research pathway for the improvement of teaching rather than improvement of teachers. In order for lesson and learning study to be a way for the profession to reclaim participation and cooperation in educational research into teaching and learning, the conditions for the implementation must be analysed and discussed.

The three contributions deal with 1) the implications of implementing lesson study in a dualistic epistemological culture, 2) learning study as a research pathway for the improvement of teaching 3)the need for new hybrid arenas for teacher driven research

Summary

Several researchers have pointed out how the true nature of lesson study (the Japanese Kyozai Kenkyuu tradition) is lost in translation and transition into other cultural contexts. It has been perceived as a collaborative investigation and improvement of a lesson rather than developing knowledge concerning curriculum-in-action (Elliot, xx). Takahashi & McDoughal (2016) talk about collaborative lesson research (CLR) in order to point out the investigative and knowledge producing aspects of lesson study.

In this symposium we will focus on these issues from a European perspective. As in the US we have a tradition of centralized top-down reformsystem for school development making up the cultural script (Stigler & Hiebert 2016)for lesson and learning study. In this tradition it is not the teachers who drive the development of teaching. Instead, they are subjected to centrally initiated professional development programs. A consequence is a shift from a focus on the improvement of teaching to the improvement of teachers when lesson study is imported. We will use examples from the Netherlands as well as from Sweden to illuminate this as well as how conditions can be created to develop lesson and learning study as pathways for research on teaching rather than on teachers. Lesson and learning study can be seen as a way for the profession to reclaim participation and cooperation in educational research into teaching, learning and knowing.

Chair: Ingrid Carlgren, Stockholm university, Sweden

Discussant: James Hiebert, university of Delaware, US

Contributions:

Ulla Runesson, Jönköping university, Sweden: Teachers and researchers in collaboration. A possibility to overcome the research – practice gap?

Jacquelien Bulterman-Bos, Open Doors Education Amsterdam, Netherlands: Lesson Study in The Netherlands: lost in translation?

Maria Andrée and Inger Eriksson, Stockholm University, Sweden: Establishing a hybrid arena for teacher driven research

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Lesson Study originated from countries where teachers develop their own profession via research. In these cultures, knowledge and action are considered to be two sides of the same coin; research and practice belong together. Around the world, however, a unity of knowledge and action is not self-evident. Many educational researchers in the west work in a dualistic culture: they form a different professional group than teachers and operate in different institutions. One professional group (researchers) constructs knowledge while another professional group (teachers) is engaged in action in classrooms.

In this contribution, I wonder what happens when Lesson Study - that originated from a non-dualistic culture - is imported in a dualistic culture. By referring to a recent Dutch overview study on Lesson Study, I discuss similarities and differences between this Dutch kind of Lesson Study and the original Japanese way. My conclusion is that important aspects of Lesson Study get ‘lost in translation’. I relate this to the dominant epistemic culture in The Netherlands and discuss the implications for the profession of teaching.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

Taking as its point of departure the discussion about the disconnection between research and practice, this paper presents learning study as a research approach to overcoming this gap. Learning study has commonalities with design research and lesson study but is a teacher - researcher collaboration where the researcher and teachers have a common object of research. Thus, it is research with and for teachers, rather than on and about teachers and is focused on constructing knowledge concerning objects of learning as well as teaching-learning relationships. The focus of the research collaboration is professional problems related to the object of learning that teachers encounter in their everyday practice. The process is guided by a theory of learning and pedagogy—variation theory. The knowledge product of learning study is a theoretical description of what must be learned in order to develop a specific capability. Examples of knowledge contributions from learning study are given, and it is suggested that such knowledge can be considered to be public knowledge that can be shared, used and developed by other teachers in other contexts. Furthermore, it is suggested that there are specific features of learning study that may strengthen connections between research and practice.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

The aim of this paper is to discuss demands and possibilities for establishing arenas for teacher-driven research that open for production, verification, and modification of knowledge among teachers. Recent educational policy in Sweden has targeted the role of research and forms of evidence-based education. However, teachers have commonly been positioned as learners and consumers of research produced by researchers in academia. Many reforms during the past decade have been categorized as “lifting teachers”, emphasizing dissemination of research results and collegial learning. In this paper we build on experiences from establishing an arena for teacher-driven research called Stockholm Teaching & Learning Studies (STLS), to discuss how conditions relating to institutional boundaries may afford knowledge production in schools. We draw on the notions of different modes of knowledge production: Mode 1 and Mode 2. Mode 1 representing university-based disciplinary research characterized by disciplinary norms and structures as well as autonomy for individual researchers, institutions and institutions. Mode 2, representing an emerging paradigm characterized by a social distribution of knowledge outside academia, transdisciplinarity and application. Establishing a hybrid arena for teacher driven research in-between academia and school can be seen as challenging knowledge-production beyond the gates of the university.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Research methodology and theoretical underpinnings of Lesson Study
Connecting the research-practice gap, Dualistic epistemological culture, Hybrid arena

Lesson and learning studies – relevant topics in the contexts of different educational cultures

Symposium383Janos Gyori, Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary; Bruce Lander, Matsuyama University, Japan; Claudia Mewald

Wenen '95Tue 16:35 - 18:05

Abstract

different versions of LLSs are not independent of a number of inherent and contextual factors of education like the concept of a lesson, the concept of teachers’ collaboration, the concepts and the objects of teachers’ and students’ learning in general and in its concrete aspects, the cultural traditions and patterns in education, the actual structural and legal frameworks of education, the types and influence of educational policy processes – and many other factors in their different ecological systems of education. The participants of this symposium have published a thematic volume of the European Journal of Education around specific themes related to different versions of LLSs and the ways they are conceptualized and used in different educational environments from the East to the West and from the South to the North. In this symposium, we offer an essence and a synthesis of our studies.

Summary

Chair: János GyÅ‘ri

Discussant: Ulla Runesson Kempe

Over the last 20 years lesson and learning studies (LLSs) did not just spread all over the world but went through many differentiation processes. (Actually, learning study itself was already generated as a new version of lesson study.) These different versions of LLSs are not independent of a number of inherent and contextual factors of education like the concept of a lesson, the concept of teachers’ collaboration, the concepts and the objects of teachers’ and students’ learning in general and in its concrete aspects, the cultural traditions and patterns in education, the actual structural and legal frameworks of education, the types and influence of educational policy processes – and many other factors in their different ecological systems of education. The participants of this symposium have published a thematic volume of the European Journal of Education around specific themes related to different versions of LLSs and the ways they are conceptualized and used in different educational environments from the East to the West and from the South to the North. In this symposium, we offer an essence and a synthesis of our studies.

In the first presentation we offer a cross-cultural analysis of a lesson through different lenses and social-cultural backgrounds that helped educators to find a specific approach to localize a global standard, or methodology of improvement and change the cultural script of teaching.

The next presenter describes how a continuous professional development programme attempts to achieve educational change towards competence-oriented foreign language education through lesson study in Lower Austria. Her results show that by LLSs it is possible to reach a tangible starting point for real educational change among teachers through lesson study.

In the final presentation shows how teachers who were inexperienced in LLSs in every sense, after learning about the theoretical background and practice of LLSs, conceptualized what LLSs are about, and explored if they can be adapted flexibly to the teachers’ own educational contexts, or rather it is the very original way of using LLSs that the teachers have to follow.

All these presentations address the theory and practice of LLSs that can never be regarded as independent of that social, cultural and educational ecosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 2006) into which they were imported or in which they have actually existed already.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

How Cross-cultural analysis of lessons can benefit customizing teaching

Research suggests that lesson study approaches based on the culture and lifestyle of each individual country need to be further developed. This is one reason why there are many cases of lesson studies now based on the socio-cultural background of the country to which the methodology is transferred.

The objective of this presentation is to provide an international dialogue among teachers and researchers well attuned to lesson study methodology, empirical evidence that illustrates how to analyse a lesson in practice, deliver evidence-based suggestions for improvement of the lesson and look culturally at what actually goes on in the classroom. As Stigler and Hiebert (2016) noted both teachers and researchers should “become aware of the need to make explicit the theory that underlies the practice” (p.583). In particular, cross-cultural analysis of a lesson through different lenses and social-cultural backgrounds helped educators in this case to find a specific approach to localize a global standard, or methodology of improvement and change the cultural script of teaching. Areas of the transcript that indicate changes observed from the three perspectives of teacher learning, student learning and pedagogical reasoning will be considered.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

Lesson Study in competence-oriented foreign language education: From an available to new learning designs

This paper presents LS which attempted to explore the question whether the training of 15 experienced teachers would achieve to develop a sustainable LS programme making use of competence-oriented research lessons and materials as available designs. The project included two cycles of LS to develop five research lessons and teaching and learning materials in the teachers’ own lesson studies during training. Two additional cycles of lesson study were then carried out at primary schools that had registered for continuous professional development with the university college of teacher education with the new trainers serving as knowledgeable others. Initial results drawing on observations, interviews and reflection meetings show that bringing continuous professional development into the schools creates motivation for teachers to engage in competence-oriented teaching. Moreover, the project showed that collaborative planning of new research lessons based on available designs and aligned with the needs of the pupils’ needs has created motivation and willingness to consider competence-orientation on a regular basis. Targeting continuous professional development on work with real learners and acknowledging teacher learning as the central goal therefore seems to have created a more tangible starting point for real educational change in Lower Austria through lesson study.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Lesson Study, or lesson study, or lesson and study, or what?

 

In an educational context where teachers are inexperienced in lesson and/or learning studies (LLSs), it is important to understand how teachers conceptualize LLSs when they meet this/these method/s for the first time. In my research I tried to unfold inexperienced teachers’ concept on LLSs. A group of teachers (n=21) who used to teach students in different age and for different subjects took part in an in-service teacher training program, and they have heard about LLSs for the first time in their career. After introducing them LLSs, I run 3 focus-group sessions with 7-7 participants in each of them. The central topic of the focus group sessions was their first understanding of LLSs. Via these focus group sessions I could unfold the way they anchored their understanding of this/these method/s to their preveious knowledge and experiences in their work. I found, that they were uncertain if LLSs are rigorous methods (Lesson Study), or something they could use rather in a flexible way adapting it to their own educational context and culture (lesson study), or different parts of LLSs can be practiced as individual, separate activities in their practice, for example shared planning of the lesson (lesson or study or else)?

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Cultural scripts of teaching, Educational change, Lesson and learning studies

Wednesday 4 Sep 2019

10:30 - 12:00 Concurrent session 4

Facing the complexities of implementing Lesson Study: what we can learn from schools in the North of the Netherlands

Featured symposium412Iris Uffen, Siebrich de Vries, University of Groningen, Netherlands; Sui Lin Goei, VU Amsterdam, Netherlands; Klaas van Veen, University of Groningen, Netherlands; Nellie Verhoef, University of Twente, Netherlands; Roelof Datema, Henk Lammerts, CSG de Kluiverboom, Netherlands; Andrea Grüber, Sebastiaan van den Berg, Ritske Tulner, CSG Augustinus

Amsterdam '72Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Discussiant: Elaine Munthe

Chair: Siebrich de Vries

Abstract

Implementing Lesson Study – or any other professional development practice – often leads to a variety of actual practices in different school contexts, which often does not immediately lead to positive results for every teacher. A challenge lies in not to give up, but to analyze instead the implementation process thoroughly to make informed decisions how to adapt Lesson Study to the own school context. In this featured symposium, a research team from the Dutch Lesson Study consortium (Lesson Study NL) and school-based Lesson Study facilitators from two secondary schools share how they are collaborating on understanding the process of implementing Lesson Study in their schools, and what they have learned so far.

General summary

Implementation of professional development practices are complex processes that lead to a variety of actual practices in different school contexts (Bryk, 2015; März, Gaikhorst, Mioch, Weijers, & Geijsel, 2017). When schools implement Lesson Study this is no different, not least because Lesson Study in itself is a complex learning activity of which many aspects appear to be interpreted in various ways outside of Japan (Fujii, 2014). This stresses the importance that if schools want to adopt Lesson Study they have to examine how Lesson Study fits to their own context. A challenge lies in not to give up when Lesson Study does not readily provide positive results for every participant as this seems rather logical and predictable than exceptional when schools experiment with professional development practices that are new to them (Bryk, 2015; Desimone & Stuckey, 2014). Instead, it is helpful to analyze the implementation process thoroughly to make informed decisions how to adapt Lesson Study to the own school context. This may prevent schools from falling into a pattern wherein they put a lot of energy into implementing professional development practices, discarding these practices when results are not forthcoming, adopting a new practice, and hitting the same brick unknowingly (Bryk, 2015, p.468).

 

In this symposium, a research team and two secondary schools in the North of the Netherlands share how they collaborate on implementing and on gaining an in-depth understanding of Lesson Study in their own school contexts. The collaboration is based on principles of practice-driven evaluation (for example: van Yperen & Veerman, 2007), which means that the aim is that the used research methods provide insights that are immediately applicable to support schools in embedding Lesson Study in their school context.

 

In the first presentation, we share a developed evaluation protocol in which we indicate five main mechanisms that contribute to informed decision making about effectively adapting Lesson Study to the own school context(based on März et al., 2017), and thus are important to understand. The five main mechanisms are:

 

1) the extent to which Lesson Study teams focus on core educational processes and student learning,

2) the extent to which the teams stick to the core principles of the Lesson Study cycle (mainly based on De Vries et al., 2016 and Takahashi & McDougal, 2016),

3) how teachers experience and perceive (the value of) Lesson Study,

4) what structural conditions are met, and

5) the characteristics of executive leadership.

 

In the second and the third presentation, school-based Lesson Study facilitators of both secondary schools share – through the framework of the developed evaluation protocol – how the implementation process works in their schools, what challenges they face during the implementation, what they have learned so far when evaluating this process, and what informed decisions they take when adapting Lesson Study to the own school context.

 

Making sense of the process of implementing Lesson Study: first steps to success

The Dutch Lesson Study consortium (Lesson Study NL) received a research grant in 2017 to investigate the working elements of Lesson Study and the effects on teacher learning in collaboration with five secondary schools. These schools’ long term goal of implementing Lesson Study is to positively impact teacher learning and with it educational improvement by implementing a Lesson Study cycle that fits the schools context.

The schools have varying contexts and they are provided with the Dutch version of the Lesson Study practice (adapted from Stepanek et al., 2007 and Dudley, 2014). The extent to which teachers perceive and experience (the value of) Lesson Study seemingly depends on how they interpret and execute Lesson Study and on the extent to which the Lesson Study practice is understood within the schools own context and adjusted accordingly (Bryk, 2015). In this presentation, we share a developed evaluation protocol which maps these processes of teachers and other important mechanisms such as structural conditions, leadership and the features of the Lesson Study process, to support high-quality implementation (based on research by März et al., 2017).

 

Lesson Study in different school contexts: lessons learned from practice

School-based Lesson Study facilitators from two participating secondary schools share their experiences regarding implementing Lesson Study. Both schools have different contexts: the smaller school (approximately 25 teachers, and 200 students, age 12-16) offers professional education, and the larger school (approximately 80 teachers, and 1250 students, age 12-18) offers general education.

The school-based facilitators share how they implement Lesson Study, what the schools’ significant features of the Lesson Study practices are, which conditions supported or made it more difficult to perform Lesson Study, what teachers learned so far and what they learned on how to strengthen the implementation process of Lesson Study.

     

Strengthening the plc of stp school to develop 21st century skills for all students

Paper207Phatarapol Lapkiartiporn, Satit Pattana School, Thailand

Belgrado '73Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Satit Pattana School is a private school, most of the new teachers are novices who still have less experiences in classroom learning designs and management.

This project aimed at developing a school academic management model for connecting teachers, administrators and others to work collaboratively to develop skills needed in the 21st century for early childhood, primary and secondary education students.

Target groups were 115 teachers and administrators and 1,345 students of Satit Pattana School.

Research tools were 1) Teachers’ Id Plan 2) Log books 3) The 21st century skills assessment form and 4) Program plans of Lesson Study activities, meeting, workshop and symposium.

Findings:

Good Level structure, 3 cycles of Lesson Study are important parts of the model.

The 21st century skills of all the students were developed to good level.

Summary

Significance and History of Research Problems:

Satit Pattana School is a private school, most of the new teachers are novices who still have less experiences in classroom learning designs and management.More over our school have a large gap of teachers’ age ranges from novice to senior teachers. Resulting in these gaps of age and professional experience created diversity and difficulty for academic management and school culture development.

The school administrators saw these gaps as potential, limitations and needs of the school future development. Therefore they jointly studied and developed the concepts and practices in managing such obstacles as an opportunity to learn and develop creative problem solving methods together. The initial model is educational innovation named “Critical and Creative Friends in the Professional Learning Community of Satit Pattana School”. The model uses Lesson Study as a corporate culture to develop professional learning community by creating opportunities for all teachers at all levels to exchange their concepts practices and results of their teaching and learning designs and management to develop their students’ learning , skills and characteristics.

Continually in 2018 academic year, the school has supported teachers of all learning groups together to strengthening our Professional Learning Community (PLC) by strengthening our students’ the 21st century skills. This project aimed at structure, activities and tools for connecting teachers, administrators and others to work collaboratively to develop skills needed in the 21st century for early childhood, primary and secondary education students to be a strong Thai citizen in the age of Thailand 4.0

Research Objectives:

To develop a school academic management model for strengthening the PLC of Satit Pattana School to nurture the 21st century skills of the students

To analyze changes in the 21st century skills of early childhood, primary and secondary education students

Target Groups

All Satit Pattana Teachers (109) and administrators (6) in total 115

1,354 students of Satit Pattana School which compose of 554 early childhood students, 625 primary students and 175 secondary students of Satit Pattana School

Research Tools

Teachers’ I.D. Plan

11 assessment forms of the 21st century skills

Teachers’ learning Log Books

Program plans : workshops, activities of 3 cycles of Lesson Study, level meetings, school meetings and symposium

Research Results

The develop model compose of

learning outcome : 21st century skills

instructional approach : The Collaborative 5 Steps Learning Process

Structure of PLC members in doing lesson study were arrange by grade levels.

Important activities are “vision and planning workshop”, “instrument developing workshop”,

“3 cycles of lesson study’, “level meeting”, “school meeting” and “symposium”

Teachers who taught students at the same level worked is the same team and joined the meeting together leading the teacher to trust, open mind and help another in solving various problems of teaching and learning to help all students.The teachers worked collaboratively with the team to develop Lessons Study. The teachers understood more deeply in designing lessons and teaching through Lesson Study. There were obvious benefits to both teacher and student development.

All of the 21st century skills of the students from childhood to secondary students are at a good level.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Professional Learning Community

Action Research and Lesson Study as professional development strategies at NIS

Paper290Irina Madeyeva, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools, Human Resourse Development, Kazakhstan

Belgrado '73Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

The study was carried out in order to identify the main features and barriers to the implementation of Action Research and Lesson Study at Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS), Kazakhstan.

Taking Stenhouse’s (1981) notion of the “teacher as a researcher” to be vital for teacher development, Elliott & Tsai (2008) emphasized the critical importance of teachers’ active involvement in discussions regarding curriculum issues. However, research in a Kazakh educational context is usually identified with “scientific research ... undertaken by university academicians,” (McLaughlin & Ayubayeva, 2015) which is therefore viewed as time-consuming and correspondingly treated with caution by teachers.

This research aims to deepen understanding of a teacher’s experience about Action Research and Lesson Study in practice based on teachers’ perceptions.

Besides, the study indicates the possibility of combining aspects of Action Research and Lesson Study in NIS practice, drawing on the Hong Kong tradition of Learning Study (Elliott & Tsai, 2008).

Summary

In this study we tried to find answers to the following research questions: What are the main benefits of Action Research and Lesson Study at NIS schools? and What are the main barriers to carrying out Action Research and Lesson Study in NIS schools?

NIS is a network of twenty intellectual schools for gifted children, which was initiated by the President of Kazakhstan in 2008.

Action Research and Lesson Study, as internationally recognized approaches to teacher professional development (Elliot, 1987; Fernandez & Yoshida, 2004; Whitehead, MakNiff, 2006), were first introduced in NIS in 2012.

The study involved a mixed method approach, which included a questionnaire, focus group interviews, and poster analysis. The focus-group interview method was chosen for a variety of reasons. One of them is that we could gather a collective answer, which in comparison with individual view is considered to be more objective (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2011). And, another advantage is that it allowed us to collect large amount of data in a short period of time and at low cost (ibid, 432). However, certain information may be omitted due to its personal nature (Smeyers, Bridges, Burbules, & Griffiths, 2015). Despite this, we have an ethical obligation not to overburden hardworking teachers, and therefore elected to employ this method.

The response rate for the online survey was 28,3% (N = 679). The survey consisted of 15 questions including 14 multiple-choice questions and one open question.

The study presents an analysis of 79 posters as vignettes of Action Research and Lesson Study extension in NIS.Background enquiries to the main project identified that around 26% of NIS teachers are involved in Action Research, with around 30% involved in Lesson Study. According to the results the majority of respondents understand the importance of these two approaches and indicates following benefits: improvement of their teaching practice, development of collaboration among the teachers and generation of new pedagogical knowledge.

The results of the study have shown that the professional development of teachers involved in Action Research and Lesson Study is improved through reflection on actual problems encountered during the learning process in the classroom, through a study in which they find answers and solutions, thereby improving planning and teaching skills. All thеsе confirm that the studying of the practice in action has a transformational approach (Whitehead, MakNiff, 2006), which affects the improvement of teaching practice.

Although Action Research and Lesson Study are used widely as the tools of teachers’ professional development at NIS, we acknowledge that certain NIS teachers face obstacles, which they would consider as difficulties rather than challenges and opportunities for professional growth. The most common barriers faced by teachers are lack of time to conduct research, lack of support from the school leadership team, and the inadequacy of their research skills.

But overcoming all difficulties mentioned might be possible if the appropriate support for conducting research is provided by school administration. It in turn will contribute to the development of research culture in schools.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Action Research, Kazakhstan, Lesson Study, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools

Comparative study of two study groups on Kyouzai Kenkyuu in Lesson Study project in Brazil

Paper97Yuriko Yamamoto Baldin, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Mathematics, Brazil; Maria Alice Veiga Ferreira de Souza, Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, CEFOR, Brazil

Belgrado '73Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This paper aims to communicate about the first results of the joint Lesson Study project in Brazil in a partnership of two Groups of Study in Brazil, in different regions and cultural contexts. The Lesson Study project, developed as professional development programs for mathematics teachers, in collaborative learning environment, started in 2018 as consequence of the convergence of the objectives and the research methods with Lesson Study principles of the groups. The paper presents the current study of two groups about “the investigation of the teaching material” about “Fractions in the 6th -7th grades” of Brazilian basic education curriculum, to support the task of producing a lesson plan to be implemented in actual classrooms by participant teachers of two groups. The observed lessons and the outcome of two groups will be comparatively analyzed during 2019. The research methods include theoretical framework and orientations to careful change of classroom practices

Summary

The authors of this paper presented in WALS 2018 paper (Baldin, Silva, Souza & Wrobel, 2018) the discussion about the diverse cultural context of Brazil, stressing the educational challenges that a developing country faces, the most provocative fact being the one related to the educational gap of teacher education in basic schools. The teachers of 1 to 5th grades receive education with weak specific content knowledge, especially in early mathematics, whereas the teachers of 6 -12th grades receive higher level education in Mathematics contents but unsatisfactory connection to pedagogical practices. Such cultural context was the background to the two different Groups of Study, coordinated by the authors, to convey to the Lesson Study projects in their places. The common objective and the Methods of Problem Solving in the professional development courses in different regions of Brazil have brought together the two groups to propose a partnership in constructing a Lesson Study project to enhance the research activities and the impacts in the school education. The previous paper discussed the two dimensions of the research work about the transition years of the basic education, in which the skills in Problem Solving and Mathematical Thinking are strongly required. The dimensions refer to the growing of a school teacher as investigator of own practice and to the research on the improvement of the classroom practice through Lesson Study. The research question pursued by this present paper is restricted to the first step of Lesson study that bonds the two dimensions and the initial activities of two groups: “How the investigation of teaching material – kyouzai kenkyuu on the theme of fractions developed by two Groups will contribute to the elaboration of effective lesson plan?” The Group of São Paulo adopts as methodology the inquiry-based student centered problem solving methodology, using innovative challenging problems for 6-7th grades, aimed to develop the mathematical thinking as conceptualized in (Isoda & Katagiri, 2012; Isoda & Olfos, 2009; Baldin & Silva, 2013). The methodology of the Group of Espirito Santo is based in the development of the mathematical thinking of the fractions with problematizations with the use of the Cuisenaire Rods taking into account their magnitudes, the unit and number condition in consonance with a broad ontological perspective of this theme (Alqhatani & Powell, 2018; Powell, 2018; Siegler et al., 2012). Both groups consider the role of Problem Solving as classroom strategy to enhance the teachers´ learning to teach along with the students´ autonomous learning of mathematics, under the concept of Collaborative Learning Research (Fujii 2015; Takahashi & McDougall, 2016). As result, the comparative analysis of the outcome of the two groups for the first step is expected, to ground the rationale to the step of elaboration of a research lesson, to advance the Collaborative Lesson Study project, in construction.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Collaborative learning of school teachers, Lesson Study in the implementation of school curri, Teaching materials in Lesson Study project

Models for writing reflective practice records as a result of LS: cases of Philippines and Japan

Paper2Pauline Mangulabnan, Nara Women's University, Graduate School of Social Life and Human Environment, Japan

BoardroomWed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

The authors are particularly interested in the documentation and reflection that take place after lesson study cycles. What do teachers write after cycles of lesson study in Japan? How do teachers make sense of open classes and transform them to insights which impact one’s practice? More importantly, what school-based structures can support teacher writing and reflection? In Japan, teachers write narratives called Reflective Practice Records (RPR). This research focuses on two model cases, in Japan and Philippines, of structures that support school-based teacher collaboration, reflection, and writing as products of co-inquiry. Initial findings from Japanese RPR’s were contextualized into a school in the Philippines creating a localized version of a school-based RPR writing structure. Value, design for evolution, rhythm, and long-span reflection are strong points of the models. This research can serve as a hint to other researchers who are designing structures to support documentation, co-inquiry, and reflection among teachers.

Summary

This work originates from the exposure of the first author to a Japanese school with a long history of reflection, inquiry, community of practice and culture of writing reflective practice records (RPR). In summary, RPR’s are reflective narratives of a teacher’s practice as a result of longitudinal collaborative inquiry about learning and lessons (Mangulabnan, 2017). These RPR’s are written outputs of cycles of lesson studies which communicate complex interactions in the class involving content, students, tasks and teacher. However, limited researches are done in what teachers write, if they do, after the lesson study. Thus, this research focuses on RPR and the school-based structure of the cycle of inquiry (lesson study) that supports it in two settings (i.e., Japan and Philippines), and aims to add to the literature of the models that support teacher writing and co-inquiry.

For the case of the Japanese school, central to its lesson study practice is the writing of RPR which connects different inquiries (lesson studies), practice, student learning and reflections creating sustainable cycles of school-based research (Yanagisawa, S. 2010). It has been an effective practice in strengthening the community of inquiry and practice among the teachers. But how can such practice be localized in a school in the Philippines in which reflection and writing are not part of the school culture? This research has two elements: the analysis of RPR and model supporting it (Japan), and the contextualization of that model into a Philippine public school creating cycles of inquiry and collaboration among teachers. The cycles are designed in such a way that teachers will be able to examine students, teaching and content, and at the same time the hidden interactions among the three so that it will be able to improve future practice and curriculum design skills of teachers through collaboration while maintaining teacher autonomy in the process.

The primary goal of the model is to provide teachers with a framework that will encourage them to gain necessary skills to (1) understand their student learning, (2) learn from students and colleagues, (3) design a curriculum suitable to the learners at hand, and (4) write reflective practice records. The challenge was not the creation of the model but rather its suitability and appropriateness to the context and school rhythm. Thus, it was crucial for the teachers to gain autonomy in the design and the writing parallel to the structure of the Japanese school in the process. In the end, teachers were able to write their RPR’s while maintaining a positive attitude towards it.

In both cases, RPR’s contain the learning design (before), learning story (during), and reflection (after) of a learning unit. The RPR’s from Japan were written with a heavy emphasis on students compared to those written by teachers in the Philippines. More than social context, this is attributed to experience to lesson study, reflection, and writing. However, this can be fine-tuned over time and extension of practice (Kuno, 2015) as the model involves simultaneous study of the learners, content, and pedagogy.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Cycles of inquiry, Reflective practice records, Teacher narratives

An evidence-driven centralized whole school LS model in China

Paper321Yanping Fang, Nanyang Technological University, National Institute of Education, Singapore

BoardroomWed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This study presents a centralized whole school LS model at the North-East China Normal University Affiliated Primary School which shares a few central features gearing towards large comprehensive research evidence for improving content design, student learning and teaching. The LS process targets on unit planning, systematic school-wide planning of the research design, adopting of rigorous research methods and careful and robust collecting and analysing of research data on content and student learning, to provide solid basis for designing, adjusting, and improving content of teaching and student learning. The purpose of the study is to answer the question of what and how the research evidences were created to improve teaching and learning by looking into three LS case studies in mathematics. Social cultural perspectives are used to contribute to the understanding of the role research evidence as essential mediations of practice for creating sustainable pedagogies with continuous improvement.

Summary

Introduction

This study focuses on a centralized whole school LS model practiced at the North-East China Normal University Affiliated Primary School for more than a decade with a remarkable feature of producing large comprehensive research evidence as basis for improving content design, student learning and teaching. First, the LS process is unit-based, with a systematic school-wide research planning (including literature review and textbook comparison related to the topic and student learning), and rigorous research methods (surveys, classroom observations, analysis of student work, interviews with students and teachers), and careful and robust collection and analysis of research data on content and student learning, to provide solid basis for designing, adjusting, and improving content of teaching and student learning. The purpose of the study is to answer the question of what and how the research evidences were created to improve teaching and learning by looking into three LS case studies in mathematics.

Theoretical framework: Social cultural perspectives view learning as situated in practice and mediated by tools and artifacts and human interacting with tools. In generating research evidence, rigorous research findings related to the topic, textbooks, students’ work samples and teaching discourse become essential tools and artifacts to mediate the alignment of lesson design and continuous improvement generating coherent sustainable pedagogies in transforming practice and learning.

Methods

Using instrumental case study approach (Creswell, 2014), three cases were carefully examined to tease out the research evidence from 3 major orientations. Together, the three cases provided the analysis to answer the research question mentioned earlier.

Results

Case 1 on teaching ‘ratio, ’ through a systemic review of literature on this complex concept and comparing different versions of national and international textbooks, solid and sound decision was made in determining the knowledge essence required for content sequencing of the unit and choice of the research lesson. Case 2 on teaching ‘one number multiplied by a fraction,’ a difficulty topic, focused on how a large scale of student work samples (n=950) were analyzed to diagnose and gauge the difficulties in student learning to inform betterment of task design. In Case 3 teaching ‘multiplication of decimals,’ the teaching discourse of nine teachers (n=9) of the third research lesson was meticulously analyzed using Flanders Interaction Analysis as basis for the teachers to improve their teaching styles and behavior. The three cases demonstrate the important role of research-based evidence in informing the key stages and dimensions of pedagogical improvement.

Conclusion and Discussion

The above cases were made possible by a centralized whole school approach to LS in which all teachers are involved across each stage of teaching an entire unit of lessons. With all the administrative functions supporting the management of the entire LS processes, the school aligned short-term aims with long-term goals of five-year planning in order to make visible transformation in ten years. Such systematic sustainable pedagogies have enabled a student self-directed and group collaborative open-space classroom learning environment in the school in all subject areas supported by essential resources developed through lesson study.

Research methodology and theoretical underpinnings of Lesson Study
A centralized whole school LS model, Evidence-driven

Facilitating sustainable development of teaching professionalism through learning study

Paper224Wing Yan Chan, The Education University of Hong Kong, Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching, Hongkong

Buenos Aires '72Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Learning study is a hybrid form of lesson study with the underpinning of Variation theory that serves as a guiding principle for pedagogical design and offers a conceptual lens for lesson analysis. This paper aims to explore how a group of Mathematics teachers of a secondary school in Hong Kong adopted Learning Study as a sustainable tool to generate and share knowledge through engaging in a learning community for enhancing teaching professionalism. A recently conducted Secondary Three Mathematics Learning Study case will illustrate how Learning Study has been adopted to facilitate sustainable professional development in the context of the case school. Results indicated that teachers could develop capability of applying Variation Theory to design and evaluate the lessons, as well as to refine the pedagogical design through different cycles of teaching. The pre- and post-tests results also showed that there is an improvement in student learning outcomes.

Summary

Learning Study is a hybrid form of Lesson Study with the underpinning of a learning theory-Variation Theory. It is a kind of collaborative action research with the aim to help student learn a specific object of learning (the learning content) by enhancing the professional competence of teachers through collaborative construction of pedagogical content knowledge (Cheng and Lo, 2013). Learning Study takes the object of learning (OL) as the point of departure and Variation Theory is applied through the entire process of the action research. The conceptual framework of Learning Study is based on three types of variation: V1 refers to variation in students’ ways of seeing the object of learning; V2 refers to variation in teachers’ ways of seeing and dealing with the object of learning; and V3 refers to using variation as a guiding principle of pedagogical design. It is argued that Variation Theory can offer a conceptual lens for lesson analysis, as a guiding principle for pedagogical design as well as providing a platform to facilitate teacher professional development. Pang and Lo (2012) pointed out that the pedagogical content knowledge generated in the Learning Study is not simply the product of personal reflection, but also reflects the insights derived from disciplined efforts to improve teaching practice; it is knowledge that can be shared publicly and hence is open to scrutiny by others. In such a case, it is able to facilitate the establishment of a learning community that focuses on learning and teaching amongst teachers.

This paper presents a case study of a Hong Kong secondary school to illustrate how a group of Mathematics teachers adopted Learning Study as a sustainable tool to develop teaching professionalism, and to generate and share knowledge continuously through engaging in a learning community initiated by a Mathematics teacher who had been a team member of a Learning Study project. Learning Study has been implemented as one of the major professional development tools to enhance Mathematics teaching and learning in the case study school since 2004. Throughout all these years, Learning Studies have been conducted on a regular basis and Variation Theory has been applied to reflect on the effectiveness of Mathematics lessons in the school. A recently conducted Learning Study by a group of three Secondary Three Mathematics teachers of the case school indicates that the teachers involved have developed capability of applying Variation Theory in the entire Learning Study process, including identifying the object of learning and its critical features, making use of Variation Theory as the guiding principle for pedagogical design, as well as refining the pedagogical designs through a series of teaching cycles. The pre- and post-tests results also showed there is an improvement in student learning outcomes.

To conclude, systematic implementation of Learning Study in schools may provide a platform for teachers to share their knowledge, experience, and deepen their understanding of Variation Theory which can help facilitate sustainable development of teaching professionalism.

Learning Studies
Hong Kong, Mathematics, Variation theory

Working toward responsive facilitation

Paper242Ivy Mejia, Eligio Obille, National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development, Earth Science, Philippines

Buenos Aires '72Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

The involvement of our institute in lesson study on an ongoing basis started in 2006. While many workshops have been conducted since then to introduce lesson study to teachers, implementation remains a challenge. Part of the difficulty may lie in the lack of facilitation know-how among facilitators whose role is critical to the success of lesson study. This paper advances a facilitation approach that may help novice implementers as they engage in this instructional development model.

Using narrative and content analysis of field notes, memos, and audio transcripts from lesson study sessions conducted over four years, we identified three stages of a facilitation process, during which three types of facilitation emerged: prompting thinking; deepening of pedagogical content knowledge; and creating and sustaining a counselling environment. The results of this study may serve as springboard to start discussions on how facilitation may be conceptualized in the context of lesson study sustainability.

Summary

In the Philippines, lesson study is initiated and led not by teachers but by facilitators from outside the school. In this paper, we share our experience in a project working as novice facilitators with a lesson study team at a Junior High School in Metro Manila, Philippines. We found that mindful monitoring of the facilitation process seemed to contribute toward making the teachers feel secure and thus persevere in lesson study. We hereby describe a facilitation approach that may help in sustaining lesson study practice.

In the study, we searched for answers to the following questions: What stages of the facilitation process could be identified as the team engaged in lesson study? What facilitation types could emerge that might foster changes in the teachers’ behavior? To address the questions, we studied field notes, memos, and audio transcripts of lesson study cycles conducted by the team for four years (2011-2015) using narrative and content analysis. In a narrative method, a selective focus based on the criteria set by the researcher is adopted (Flick, 2009). The selected events were content analyzed and coded by the first author based on descriptions, not on prior definitions. The themes generated from this preliminary coding were audited by the other two authors in ten meeting sessions, during which the constant comparative method was used. Some codes were renamed using more appropriate terms while others were reclassified until all the authors shared a common understanding of the events and their contexts, and accepted the new codes and their definitions. A second round of the constant comparison method was conducted to arrive at the final codes and themes.

From the coding analysis, three stages of the facilitation process were identified: planning; applying and responding; and reflecting. Further, three facilitation types emerged from the study: prompting thinking; deepening of pedagogical content knowledge; and creating and sustaining a counselling environment.

As the entire team engaged in the lesson study process, the facilitators (the authors), were ‘unconsciously’ building routines which were recognized eventually as the aforementioned facilitation stages. During these stages, the facilitators engaged in deep thinking and reflection on how to address unanticipated occurrences during the lesson study process and carried out multiple facilitation types. We believe that this facilitation process, which we refer to as responsive facilitation, played a significant role in sustaining the teachers’ interest in participating in the lesson study sessions and in the creation of a non-threatening environment as they shared the status of their pedagogical practice and improvement.

Lesson Study and the facilitator
Facilitation

Plearnpattana school as professional learning community development focused on formative assessment

Paper64Phurithat Chaiwattanakun, Plearnpattana School, Thailand

Buenos Aires '72Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Plearnpattana School implemented the School as Professional Learning Community Development process to develop teachers’ professionalism through class observation and lesson study, to promote collaborative learning, and not to leave anyone behind. We focused on collaborative and active learning and formative assessment. The students were assessed on their learning behaviors, emotional skills, and relationships with classmates and teachers. After class observation, the teachers brought the problematic cases into the meeting to identify the causes and planned the training guidelines. The parents also got involved in the training. In the end, all the cases were reviewed again to ensure that the problems were resolved successfully and to get the overall picture of the problems. Once the same problem was reported, we conducted a root cause analysis. This process was developed as School as Professional Learning Community to develop the teachers’ problem-solving skills and a team of teachers, leaving no one behind.

Summary

Plearnpattana School implemented the School as Professional Learning Community Development process to develop the professionalism of the teachers through class observation together with lesson study. The other two purposes of this implementation were to promote collaborative learning and not to leave any teachers and students behind. In learning management, collaborative learning and active learning were our main focus. In the evaluation, formative assessment was an important tool used by the teachers and the class observers. During class time, the students were assessed based on three easily observed aspects – their learning behaviors to see if they have any difficulties, their emotional skills, and their relationships with the classmates and the teacher through their dialogues. Every Monday afternoon, the homeroom teachers met to discuss the students who did not perform well in class. They reflected and discussed to identify the cause of the problem. After the problem were identified, the teachers planned together the training guidelines. At this stage, the parents of those students were asked to work with the teachers to ensure that the training at home went in the same directions as at the school. The teachers followed up the students’ development periodically. At the end of the semester, all of the cases were reviewed again to ensure that the students' problems were resolved successfully and to get the overall picture of the problems and their causes. If the same problem was repeated by many students, we would solve it at the macro level. Also, we would conduct a root cause analysis to figure out the remaining problems. This process was developed as School as Professional Learning Community to develop the teachers’ problem-solving skills and to create a team of teachers, leaving no teachers and students behind.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Formative Assessments, Professional Learning Community

A case study of teacher learning and teacher change through lesson study as school-based CPD

Paper314Yumiko Ono, Naruto University of Education, Japan

Londen '71Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

In Rwanda new Competence-Based Curriculum (CBC) has been introduced since 2016. It is a significant paradigm shift for teachers, which calls for a comprehensive change and new thinking on instructional approaches in teaching, learning and assessment (REB, 2017). This is a case study of a primary school teacher focused on her learning through lesson study as professional development. Three mathematics lessons (1 baseline and two research lessons) by a same teacher over two years of school-based CPD are analysed. Preliminary discourse analysis of 2019 lesson shows a significant difference from the 2017 math lesson which was characterized as “a teacher-dominated discourse promoting rote learning and recitation” (Hardman et al., 2012). The teacher interview after the 2019 research lesson seems to support Guskey’s model of teacher change (1986): successful experimentation of a new teaching practice can lead to a change in teacher belief and mindset.

Summary

This is a case study of a primary school teacher in Rwanda, focused on her learning through lesson study as professional development.

In Rwanda new Competence-Based Curriculum (CBC) has been introduced in pre-primary, primary and secondary schools since 2016. It is a significant paradigm shift for teachers, which calls for a comprehensive change and new thinking on instructional approaches in teaching, learning and assessment (REB, 2017). Rwanda Education Board (REB) devised a three-year induction program (2016-2018) which combined cascade-type training and school-based continuous professional development (CPD), to equip all 67,000 teachers with the competencies required to facilitate students’ learning according to the new curriculum. Project for Supporting Institutionalizing and Improving Quality of SBI Activity (SIIQS) launched in 2017 to support CBC implementation in classrooms through School-Based INSET (SBI).

In the CBC induction program, teachers were expected to conduct CPD after covering content of CBC induction program - to be able to transform what they had learned into practice. Although available data suggests that many schools are conducting school-based CPD regularly (REB & JICA, 2017), it is unknown what have been discussed or what activities have been conducted when teachers get together. The project started a small-scale intervention in several “model schools” to introduce Lesson Study as CPD model.

Four “model schools” were selected to implement Lesson Study1 in June 2018 and we met once a week for five consecutive weeks to complete a cycle of Lesson Study (orientation, lesson planning, micro teaching, research lesson and post lesson reflection) in June to July 2018 and Feb to March 2019. Among the teachers who presented a research lesson in 2019, there was one female teacher of primary level whose mathematic lessons were videotaped in 2017 and 2018.

Preliminary discourse analysis of 2019 lesson shows a significant difference from the 2017 math lesson which was characterized as “a teacher-dominated discourse promoting rote learning and recitation” (Hardman et al., 2012). The teacher interview after the 2019 research lesson reflects her confidence in teaching and change in her pedagogical belief. She referred the importance of lesson objectives and the role of formative assessment. There was a comment that hints her acceptance of responsibility to reach as many learners as possible (re-teaching a lesson when certain number of learners were found not understanding a concept or not mastering a skill). She also mentioned that she had used some ideas proposed in the reflection session after micro teaching and they worked very well. She feels confident teaching in front of visitors. This case seems to support Guskey’s model of teacher change (1986): successful experimentation of a new teaching practice can lead to a change in teacher belief and mindset. Detailed analysis of classroom discourses over time, lesson plans, contribution of collective lesson planning and reflection is on-going. Pre-and Post-test for the learners are being examined now. The results will be shared in the presentation and the authors will discuss how to support introduce and sustain Lesson Study in a resource scarce country like Rwanda.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Rwanda, Teacher change

Lesson Study in the educational reform: A school in Taiwan

Paper358Chun-Yi Lin, National Taiwan Normal University, Department of Education, Taiwan

Londen '71Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

A design case was conducted in an elementary school to study teachers' on-site professional development through lesson study in the national educational reform in Taiwan. The researcher will present the two-year experience in facilitating lesson study in this school and the findings regarding the following aspects: (1) recognizing teachers’ mini-theories and embodied knowledge during curriculum planning, class observations, and discussions (2) linking teachers’ mini-theories and students’ class engagement to a broader context such as societal changes or educational reforms, (3) encouraging teachers’ conversations with each other for collegiality, and (4) when needed, helping extract teachers’ tacit knowledge during their collaborative problem-solving to become the school’s collective knowledge shared with other teachers.

Summary

Lesson Study in the educational reform: A school in Taiwan

Teachers come to lesson study with their own mini-theories of teaching. These mini-theories do not just add up to a comprehensive theory that responds to the contemporary needs of education, such as content-and-competencies integrated curriculum designs and instructional approaches. In fact, many teachers in Taiwan are experiencing a productive struggle to create a school-based curriculum to support student-centered learning as a part of efforts in the coming national educational reform.

This selected elementary school used to be highly rated for its rigid curriculum and high teacher quality; however, it is now facing a challenge to change: Twenty years ago, each teacher in this school was encouraged to develop their own unique curriculum, which was all individualized by teachers’ strengths and interests but potentially considered private. Meanwhile, most teachers in this school had not collaborated on a regular basis for curriculum design or instructional innovation since then. The school’s emphasis was placed on excellence of student learning outcomes, but little on equity through teachers’ collaborative participation in lesson study.

The researcher, as a lesson study facilitator, started working with the teacher communities in this school two years ago. What we aimed was not only to develop a school-based curriculum but to re-engage teachers in their on-site professional development through lesson study with their colleagues. Therefore, the lesson study was proceeded through constant reflection and careful planning based on the research findings when possible. This presentation will address the importance of the following aspects found in the case: (1) recognizing teachers’ mini-theories and embodied knowledge during curriculum planning and class observations, (2) linking teachers’ mini-theories and students’ class engagement to a broader context such as societal changes or educational reforms, (3) encouraging teachers’ conversations with each other for collegiality, and (4) when needed, helping extract teachers’ tacit knowledge during the collaborative problem-solving process to become the school’s collective knowledge shared with colleagues in the school.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Collaborative knowledge building, Educational reform

Effective implementation of Lesson Study for improved learner performance: Kalonga secondary school

Paper87Emelia Kasonde, Kalonga Secondary School, Education, Zambia

Londen '71Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Ministry of General Education introduced Lesson Study of teachers as part of initiatives to improve teacher’s knowledge and skills as well as learner’s performance. The impact of Lesson study manifested in the improvement of teacher’s teaching skills and learners’ performance in national examination pass rate. However, the inconsistence of the pass rate at Kalonga secondary school in Kabwe of Central Zambia prompted this research whose aim was to assess the implementation of Lesson study and establish the extent to which teacher involvement had enhanced learner performance. Data from a questionnaire for teachers, assessment and national examination results was collected and analysed. Findings revealed that as teachers got involved in Lesson study, learner performance improved gradually while a drop in performance was recorded when teachers relaxed. The study is hoped to help school management plan for sustainable strategies for effective implementation of Lesson study in school based continuing professional development.

Summary

Zambia adapted to the practice of Lesson study for professional development growth of teachers and improving learner performance. Teachers meet regularly to plan, implement, evaluate and improve lessons collaboratively as their Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activity. CPD activities are conducted using the already existing framework of School Programme of In service for the Term (SPRINT). At the beginning of each school term, planning of lesson study activities is done during the Head teacher’s In-service Meeting (HIM). The planned activities are conducted within the department facilitated by a teacher who feels comfortable to teach a particular topic after which improvements are discussed. Lesson study activities are meant to improve the quality of classroom teaching which in turn would enhance students’ learning achievement.

The effective implementation of Lesson study has however been a challenge for some science teachers at Kalonga Secondary School which was among the pilot schools when Lesson Study practice was introduced in 2006 as a tool for School Based CPD of in service. From the research by Chilufya and Hama, (2016), it was revealed that the passion of engaging in Lesson Study of some teachers has slowly dwindled along the years. This has negatively affected the schools in terms of learner performance in the national examination pass rate.

Therefore, this survey aimed at assessing the effectiveness of Lesson Study practice at Kalonga Secondary School and establishing the extent to which the activities enhanced learner performance by answering the following questions;

Has Lesson study been implemented effectively at school?

Is there a relationship between effective implementation of Lesson study and learner performance?

The effective implementation of Lesson Study was based on assessing teacher’s activities at school such as collaborative planning, how learners were considered during planning, readiness of teachers to facilitate during demo lessons, considering learners during the learning process, their performance in national examination pass rate and evaluate the sustainability of Lesson study. Data collection was largely through questionnaires where fifteen (15) science teachers practicing were targeted. Additionally, final examination and assessment results for grade 12 learners were analysed to assess learner performance. The questionnaires for teachers and the examination results were used for analysis.

Findings revealed that teachers had the knowledge on Lesson study implementation, collaborated and considered learners during planning and lesson delivery. It was also revealed that new teachers used teacher centred approaches and lacked lesson delivery skills but found the practice very interesting and educative.

It was clear that Lesson study practice had enhanced the grade 12 learner performance partially. In addition, it was discovered that most Lesson study facilitators had been transferred to other provinces or taken up managerial positions. The research has also established that the teachers at school required a reorientation on learner centred approaches as well as emphasising on personal development. It is therefore hoped that the survey will help teachers plan Lesson study activities that are more attractive and allow new teachers appreciate opportunities to sustain the school-based Continuing Professions Development (CPD) for improving learner performance.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Learner performance, School Based – Continuing Professional Development

Current status and issues of Lesson Study in Japan - Lesson Study’s crisis and new development

Paper143Shin Hamada, Former Chairperson for Akita City Principals, Japan

Madrid '69Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Through ECORYS, the Directorate of Education and Culture of the European Commission requested information on Japanese Lesson Study and I reported the present situation and problems of Lesson Study in Japan from the viewpoint of practitioners, as well as the recent new development of the topic. In Japan, through the daily Lesson Study, we have developed a curriculum and teaching methods according to the actual situation of children. This has contributed to create a teacher’s occupational culture in which teachers learn from each other. However, the recent declining birthrate makes Lesson Study within individual schools difficult. Therefore, the Committee of School Principals in Akita City encourages the use of inter-school networks in Lesson Study, such as making any Lesson Study societies available for all teachers in Akita city. The results appear to be good, as found in the national academic achievement survey.

Summary

Japan has course of study guidelines that teachers should follow. However, it does not necessarily apply to all provinces. Therefore, it was necessary to transform the national curriculum according to the realities of the region / school. Through lesson study, teachers have developed curriculum and teaching methods according to the actual situation of children. This has also created a work culture in which teachers learn from each other. Also, it is important to note that in Japan, there is a view that graduating from a university teacher training course does not necessarily make a fully qualified teacher. There is a culture that conducts lesson study on novice teachers and trains them practically. A novice teacher improves his/her teaching ability in classroom through colleagues’ class observations and guidance from experienced seniors. Lesson Study in Japan is based on the teacher’s voluntary participation and the quality of education depends on the teacher's constant efforts to improve lessons.

  The results of national academic achievement tests show, although Akita Prefecture escaped from the lowest group in the 1960s, it made a leap in the nation's highest rank in 2007 and currently still maintains its high position. About 50 years ago, the Akita Prefectural Board of Education established a research school system and mandated open research group. At the same time, it supported voluntary research by all teachers. Each school organized a research group voluntarily, and carried out a public open research workshop group in a circle. Meanwhile, the teacher spontaneously performed a research presentation together with classroom study meetings. The Lesson Study, where the administration and the schools were united, became established as an educational culture in Akita prefecture, and contributed to dramatic improvement in students’ academic ability.

Currently, in Japan, the declining birthrate/ aging population is a rapidly progressing issue. Akita also suffers from the issue, thus the decrease of the number of students makes it increasingly difficult to continue the Lesson Study within each school. For this reason, the School Principal Association in Akita City established a new system of lesson study that allows teachers to learn from each other across schools by integrating Akita-wide in-school training, administrative training and voluntary training groups. As a result, the students’ academic ability in Akita City is improving steadily.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Inter-school networks in Lesson Study, Lesson Study's crisis, New development of Lesson Study

Lesson Study for sustainable learning development: review on context, input, process, and product

Paper293Paldy Jamil Pemma, Jakarta State University, Indonesia

Madrid '69Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This paper presents the review process on monitoring and evaluation of implementation lesson study program in higher education. This program was implemented since 2013 in Cokroaminoto Palopo University. CIPP Model was used as a model to evaluate the implementation of the program. Context evaluation convey information about program policies, goals, and problems of learning process. Input evaluation concern of condition and qualification of lectures’ ability, students, and learning tools. Process evaluation provide information about monitoring of lesson study program related to process of plan, do, and see stages. It also reveals details the lecturers’ and students’ activities, collaborative, and collegialities. Product aspect provide information about improvement of lectures’ quality, students’ ability, perception, and program continuity. This study employed evaluation research. Collecting data by using questionnaire and interview and it is analysed by quantitative and qualitative. The result significance will be related to improvement of learning sustainable through lesson study.

Summary

Lesson study has implemented since 2013 in Cokroaminoto Palopo University, in all study programs of Teacher Training and Education Faculty. Why lesson study? Lesson study can be perceived as a cycle of instructional improvement since it involves teacher in active learning about content, is driven by data and goals, and is sustained, intensive, collaborative, and practice based (Lewis, et al. 2009). This study focused on evaluate the implementation of lesson study in English Education Study Program. According to Stufflebeam (2003), states evaluation is process of delineating, obtaining, providing, and applying descriptive and judgmental information about merit and worth of some objects’ goals, design, implementation, and outcomes to guide improvement decision, provide accountability reports, inform institutionalization decision and improve understanding of the involve phenomena.

In general, this evaluation concern of four aspects, namely context, input, process, and product evaluation (CIPP). The evaluation model from Stufflebeam is consider as appropriate way to conducting monitoring and evaluation of lesson study program. It provides details information about context which reveal to governance program policy and government regulation, goals, and learning difficulties. Input evaluation is designed to inform lecturers’ qualification, students understanding, and learning tools. Process of implementation of lesson study program involved planning (plan), application (do), and reflection (see) are evaluated as process evaluation. Product evaluation contributed to inform details about lecturers’ and students’ quality improvement, perceptions, and program continuity. The criteria are designed as success references for all components in each aspect (CIPP). The theoretical framework describe on the figure.

Evaluation research is employed as design of the study. The questionnaires and interview are used in collecting data and it is analysed quantitative and qualitative procedures, based on items of data. The questionnaires are given to lecturers (model lecturer and observers), students, and Head of English Education Study Program. The interview is conducted to Dean, Head of English Education Study Program, lecturers, students, and stake holders.

As discussion of this study (preliminary findings), it describes about the evaluation result of implementation lesson study program for five years. it reveals detail in each aspect to give information about what already conducting in learning process. In context and input component are evaluated by baseline survey, process component is evaluated by monitoring about process implemntation of plan, do, and see stages, and product component is evalauted by using end-line survey. This evaluation result will give contribution as consideration to revise the all of stages in learning process based on local wisdom and cultures. The results also create learning community for sustainable learning development.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
CIPP Model, Learning sustainable, LS monitoring and evaluation

Towards lesson study maturity: a critical analysis of contextual factors influencing sustainability

Paper389Julie Jordan, University of Leeds, School of Education, United Kingdom

Madrid '69Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Drawing on research carried out in secondary schools in the UK, this paper looks at how lesson study is reconstructed and reconfigured in different school contexts. Using complexity theory and Collaborative Lesson Research as a point of reference for effective lesson study and a model of maturity, I critically analyse the contextualisation of lesson study as a vehicle for professional development and whole school improvement. A case study methodology provides new empirical evidence of how and why lesson study was shaped by dualities of teacher and school level beliefs and values and local school and wider system conditions. The paper reports on creative ways kyouzai kenkyuu (the careful study of academic content and the curriculum) and the role of the koshi or knowledgeable other was interpreted and translated. Findings have implications for lesson study sustainability and maximising impact in different school cultures and organisational contexts.

Summary

Drawing on research carried out in secondary schools in the UK, this paper looks at how lesson study is reconstructed and reconfigured in different school contexts. Using complexity theory and Collaborative Lesson Research as a point of reference for effective lesson study and a model of maturity, I critically analyse the contextualisation of lesson study as a vehicle for professional development and whole school improvement. A case study methodology provides new empirical evidence of how and why lesson study was shaped by dualities of teacher and school level beliefs and values and local school and wider system conditions. The paper reports on creative ways kyouzai kenkyuu (the careful study of academic content and the curriculum) and the role of the koshi or knowledgeable other was interpreted and translated. Findings have implications for lesson study sustainability and maximising impact in different school cultures and organisational contexts.

and policy aspects of sustainable Lesson Study, Leadership, management
Contexts, Professional learning, Science teaching

Lesson Study for the elite?

Symposium302Klaus Rasmussen, University College Copenhagen, Denmark; Camilla Hellsten Østergaard, Jacob Bahn, Jakob Sebelin Skogø, Rikke Sofie Dela, Cecilie Eriksen, Denmark; Jens Harreskov Christensen, Hummeltofteskolen, Denmark

Omloop NoordWed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This symposium examines the characteristics displayed by individuals and groups who engage in the processes of lesson study. In the absence of supportive (and formal) organizational structures or requirements, it is invariably a minority who take lesson study to their hearts (Takahashi & McDougal, 2018, s. 146. It is a great challenge to making a culture of lessons study sustainable when it is largely a voluntary practice. And even more so if it is true that “Only teachers who willingly receive the idea of LS and who fully believe in the effectiveness or benefits of LS process will continue to sustain lesson studies in schools.“ (Lim, Teh & Chiew, 2018, p. 58)

In particular we are going to discuss and examine in which manner it can be said that lesson study appeals to those who aim high in their profession as teachers.

Summary

During the symposium we are going to examine the following two research questions, which both have an intimate bearing on how lesson study will fare in the future:

What is the nature of “knowledge” learned from participating in lesson study, which some find attractive and others do not seek or desire?

Does participating in lesson study require a certain character? (e.g. Does it take a keen interest in students learning and one’s own development of knowledge for teaching? Is lesson study mostly for the ones who are willing to go the extra mile? Is everybody able to learn and profit from a lesson study process? Does it take a Herbartian attitude to learn and profit in a culture of lesson study?)

Chevallard (2015) introduced the notion of Herbartian attitude to indicate a “receptive attitude towards yet unanswered questions and unsolved problems, which is normally the scientist’s attitude in his field of research and should become the citizen’s in every domain of activity”. In a culture involving lesson study, it can be said that teaching continually presents teachers with an ongoing number of questions regarding how students learn, and consequently how to help/facilitate the learning process.

The overall theoretical framework to analyze the questions stated above are the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic: Dispositions and/or knowledge will be modeled as praxeologies, i.e. coherent sets of praxis and theory (disciplinary, didactic and paradidactic). The conditions and constraints to sustainable lesson study can be expressed in terms of paradidactic infrastructures, and the position actors have in the institutional ecology which is also affected by didactic co-determination.

The Symposium consists of three presentations of each 20 minutes followed by 10 minutes of discussion. The three presentations are related in that they all utilize data from lesson study initiatives around Copenhagen where teachers, teacher educators and pre-service teachers meet in different contexts and capacities. They relate each a different institutional perspective on the development of a lesson study culture.

Chair: Tijmen Schipper, Windesheim, the Netherlands

References:

Chevallard, Y. (2015). Teaching Mathematics in Tomorrow’s Society: A Case for an Oncoming Counter Paradigm. In S. J. Cho (Ed.), The Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Mathematical Education: Intellectual and attitudinal challenges (pp. 173-187). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Lim, C. S. , The K. H. & Chiew, C. M.(2018). Promoting and Implementing Lesson Study in Malaysia: Issue of Sustainability. In M. Quaresma et al. (eds), Matematics Lesson Study Around the World, ICME-13 Monigraphs, http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75696-7_3

Takahashi, A. & McDougal T. (2018). Collaborative Lesson Research (CLR). In M. Quaresma et al. (eds), Matematics Lesson Study Around the World, ICME-13 Monigraphs, http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75696-7_8

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Research Paper Presentation: “Talent among the talented: Is Lesson Study an elitist endeavor?”

Strand: 6. Lesson Study in different cultural, subject and learning contexts

Presenters: Teacher Educators: Klaus Rasmussen & Camilla Hellsten Østergaard

Abstract: Establishing a lesson study culture is a demanding process and clearly requires more than an occasional experiment with teachers. In the process of developing a culture we need certain teachers with high ambitions; teachers who are curious; teachers who are first-movers – teachers we can characterise as exceptional teachers (the elite). But what is exceptional and how do teachers become exceptional? Do teachers develop exceptionality in the lesson study process? Or are they already exceptional when they sign up to be a part of the lesson studies process? The question is “which came first, the chicken or the egg?” In our presentation, we analyse the different positions, pre-service teachers and teachers can take, to characterise the extraordinariness and answer the question “Is lesson study an elitist endeavour?” Our data come from the Danish context where lesson study has been experimented for more than 10 years.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

Student Paper Presentation: “Going beyond practicum: Are we the Elite?”

Strand: 2. Lesson Study in initial teacher training

Presenters: Pre-service teachers: Jakob Sebelin Skogø, Rikke Sofie Dela & Schultz Yde Eriksen

Abstract: From the research lesson we have conducted ourselves, we examine the knowledge about students learning that we have acquired. We characterize this knowledge about teaching particular topics by undertaking a praxeological analysis on the basis of self-interviews, and we present some suggestions as to whether our participation in, and knowledge development during, lesson study can be said to contain some kind of elite qualities.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Walking the extra mile: Why lesson study was well received in our municipality and at our school

Presenters: Jacob Bahn (Municipality, Consultant) & Jens Harreskov Christensen (Teacher)

Abstract: We report on a yearlong initiative to foster a LS culture at Hummeltofteskolen. We present the organizational setup, and debate the conditions and constraints towards making LS an enduring paradidactic practice. At the same time, we take an introspective look at the future: Will LS continue long after “we” are gone?

Since 2015 Hummeltofteskolen has adopted LS as a major means of an intended effort to change the paradigms of teaching and teachers’ professional development. It has mostly been a positive experience, which has helped teachers focus on the connection between their teaching and students possible learning. Strongly encouraged and supported by the municipality administration, all nine school across the municipality work with LS in some form. But only at Hummeltofteskolen has the formats and work forms been integrated successfully into the general practice.

Why have the efforts at Hummeltofteskolen developed in a more sustainable fashion than at other schools? Which factors related to individuals, groups or the organisation have been crucial in instigating and sustaining a new paradigm for teachers’ professional development revolving around LS?

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Elite, Exceptional

Leading sustainable Lesson Study in a network of ten UK primary schools

Workshop43Stefanie Edwards, Learn Academies Trust/University of Brighton, United Kingdom; Alan Eathorne, Learn Academies Trust, United Kingdom

On Fifth 1Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This workshop introduces particpants to practical aspects of doctoral research (see linked proposal for WALS paper – Stef Edwards) investigating the kinds of school and system leadership practices which successfully promote and sustain Lesson Study within and across a network of ten UK primary schools. The workshop leaders present the background to the inquiry and explain how it is influencing leadership of Lesson Study at scale in their organisation. They outline key routines and procedures, providing a rationale underpinned by emerging themes from research data. They explain the role of the RIPL (Research-Informed Professional Learning) Leader in creating conditions conducive to effective Lesson Study. They share resources, guidance and protocols developed to support this work. Participants are invited to discuss and ask questions about the research and the leadership approaches and to reflect on ways in which such strategies might be useful to adopt and adapt in their professional contexts.

Summary

This workshop introduces participants to school improvement work related to a doctoral study investigating the kinds of leadership practice which promote and sustain Lesson Study in UK primary schools. The inquiry started in 2013 and originated in a headteacher’s professional challenge to develop teachers’ professional learning in a small primary school context. Subsequently, the headteacher’s role developed to encompass leadership of a charitable trust of ten UK primary schools. This extended the inquiry’s scope, shifting from auto-ethnographic, participant observation to phenomenological investigation of school and system leaders’ leadership practices when implementing Lesson Study at scale.

Developing high quality teaching that enhances the quality of pupils’ learning requires opportunities for teachers to engage in effective processes of professional learning. Lesson Study appears to offer iterative, collaborative contexts which support engagement with authoritative research, curriculum and pedagogical guidance and to implement new learning in classroom practice. Saito, Sato( 2012) explored the use of Lesson Study to promote school improvement in Japan and suggested further research to investigate leadership of Lesson Study over time. Understanding the steps needed for teachers in UK contexts to learn in Lesson Study groups is a problem for school leaders (Xu, Pedder 2014, Dudley 2014). Seleznyov (2018) and Takahashi, McDougal (2016) suggest characteristics which may be key to the success of Lesson Study. Godfrey et al (2018) demonstrate ways in which Guskey’s (2000) approaches can be utilised to evaluate impact of Lesson Study on teachers’ and pupils’ learning. Opfer, Pedder (2011) and Cordingley et al (2015) illuminate features of effective continuing professional development (CPD) which are helpful to leaders implementing all forms of professional learning provision for teachers.

The inquiry’s overarching research question is: ‘What kinds of school and system leadership practices successfully promote and sustain Lesson Study within individual schools and across a network of ten UK primary schools?’

This workshop aims to explain how the inquiry is influencing the practices of leaders at all levels as they implement and support the development of effective Lesson Study in their schools and across the network. Workshop leaders outline ways in which leaders synthesise findings from research relating to Lesson Study, teachers’ professional learning and leadership in their work to establish a thriving Lesson Study programme within the constraints of the UK education system. Examples of this work were published in the Chartered College of Teaching’s journal, Impact, in March 2019 (Eathorne et al 2019).

Workshop outline:

A presentation outlining the research rationale, the development of a theory of action, the main actions taken and an evaluation of impact and progress so far, with integrated opportunities for questions and table discussions.

An opportunity to reflect on how Lesson Study is led at a macro and micro level in participants’ contexts and settings.

Guided discussions around some key aspects of embedding and leading Lesson Study as a driver for teacher development

Practical moments to allow workshop participants to review and evaluate the impact Lesson Study is having on outcomes for pupils, leadership, processes and schools’ professional learning cultures.

and policy aspects of sustainable Lesson Study, Leadership, management
Facilitation, Leadership, Lesson Study

Lesson Study from the prespective of chinese culture: generation of a demonstration lesson

Paper133Ge Yuna, Northeast Normal University, Faculty of Education, China

On Fifth 3Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This study describes the whole process of the generation of a demonstration lesson through three teaching cycles of lesson study to probe the profound Chinese culture in education. A narrative inquiry was adopted to figure out the reasons why the participant, Teacher P, stood out to address the demonstration lesson after taking teacher recruitment examinations for three times. Nothing helpful suggestion appeared in the first cycle. The participant went to a broader access outside of her school to ask for assistance from more experienced helpers in the second cycle. The last cycle was operated from the authoritative expert. It is concluded that different levels of group members of lesson study have different impacts on the participant. The more authorized, the greater the influence will be. Strong intrinsic motivation was the main cause to drive the participant. Three aspects of Chinese culture were reflected as well.

Summary

Lesson study has been used as an important vehicle for improving teaching and learning as well as teacher professional development in China for over a century (Chen & Yang, 2013). With regard to “CLS,” Chen (2013) lists three features of typical CLS practices: the making of public lessons, deliberate practice of teaching the same lesson repeatedly and institutionalized apprenticeship for novice teachers.

There are different types of lesson studies in China, in which teachers at different stages of their careers are engaged. For example, novice teachers are often involved in lesson studies for “report lessons”; experienced teachers are more likely to engage in lesson studies for “research lessons”; and expert teachers conduct lesson studies for “demonstration lessons”(Pang & Marton, 2017). These three kinds of lessons can all be called public lessons. The public class is taught by one teacher and open for observation to a group of teachers and administrators from inside a school or outside a school. Public classes are now a routine activity and have played a role in securing incremental, accumulative and sustainable improvements of mathematics teaching in China (Huang et al., 2011).

A narrative inquiry was adopted to figure out the reasons why the participant, Teacher P, who was an English teacher in a junior high school, stood out to address the demonstration lesson after taking teacher recruitment examinations for three times. Three research questions are raised: 1)What details are the three teaching cycles? 2)Why did Teacher P get the second place in the competition of excellent lessons? 3)What typical Chinese culture was reflected behind this phenomenon?

Observation, inverview , and text analysis were adopted during the process of collecting data. The author of this research is a teaching research specialist for all junior English teachers in a district. The research work happened before, during, and after the competition of excellent lessons held by a municipal region. The researcher witnessed the whole process of the generation of a demonstration lesson. The collected data were coded according to some patterns.

Nothing helpful suggestion appeared in the first cycle. The participant went to a broader access outside of her school to ask for assistance from more experienced helpers in the second cycle. The last cycle was operated from the authoritative expert. It conclusdes that different levels of group members of lesson study have different impacts on the participant. The more authorized, the greater the influence will be. Strong intrinsic motivation was the main cause to drive the participant. Three aspects of Chinese culture were reflected as well.

References

Chen, X. & Yang, F. (2013). Chinese teachers’ reconstruction of the curriculum reform through lessonstudy, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 2 (3), 218-236.

Huang, R., Li, Y., Zhang, J. & Li, X. (2011). Developing teachers’ expertise in teaching through exemplary lesson development and collaboration, ZDM – The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 43,(6-7), 805-817.

Pang, M. & Marton, F. (2017). Chinese lesson study, Learning study and keys tolearning, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 6(4),336-347, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLLS-01-2017-0005

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
A narrative inquiry, Chinese culture

The challenge of sustainability in lesson study in preservice teacher education

Paper395Amy Parks, Lynn Paine, Michigan State University, Teacher Education, United States of America

On Fifth 3Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This longitudinal case study examines obstacles to sustaining lesson study over time in a large teacher education program, even when faculty members are knowledgeable about and committed to the practice. Drawing on an analysis of interviews and written artifacts, the paper illuminates challenges faculty had in continuing to use lesson study assignments in preservice education after they were introduce. Faculty identified a number of structural features, such as turnover among instructors, demands from outside bodies, and perceived pressure to do lesson study “right,” as factors that made the practice unsustainable.

Summary

Lesson study (LS) offers unique promise in teacher education. Despite variations, most models of LS offer opportunities for preservice teachers to engage in learning in and from practice (Ball & Cohen, 1999) in a collaborative setting that sharpens their ability to notice (Barnhart & van Es, 2015), and encourages them to work back and forth between content and kids (Ackerson et al, 2017). These features align well with current conceptions of high-quality pedagogy in teacher education (Grossman, Hammerness & McDonald, 2009). Thus, LS is increasingly widely introduced in US teacher education (Sims & Walsh, 2009). We begin from the assumption that LS has much to offer, but acknowledge that many teacher education programs have had difficulty putting lesson study into wide use and sustaining the practice over time. This paper aims to identity contextual features that act as barriers to sustaining lesson study work with preservice teachers. The central research question is: What obstacles to sustaining lesson study over time are identified by faculty members in a large teacher education program?

The analysis draws on actor-network theory (Latour, 2005), which emphasizes connections across people and material objects over both time and distance. This theoretical frame is useful as we seek to examine ways in which both human beings--such as faculty, graduate students and program directors--and written documents--such as syllabi or accreditation requirements-- create opportunities and challenges in relation to lesson study across different disciplinary areas of the teacher education program as well as over time. Latour’s notion of network helps us explore these tracing.

The study is a single longitudinal case study with an analysis that includes vertical comparisons across disciplinary spaces and transversal comparisons of data points within the case (Bartlett & Vavrus, 2017) over ten years in a large teacher education program in the midwestern US. Data include: interviews with faculty members and graduate students who have used lesson study in coursework over the last ten years; interviews with faculty who have removed lesson study assignments from courses; and interviews with faculty who direct teams of instructors; and written documents (e.g., course assignments, syllabi, and program requirements and regulations). Analysis includes open coding of benefits and obstacles and network maps of how ideas about lesson study traveled (or stopped traveling) within the program.

Faculty identified a number of obstacles to sustaining a lesson study practice – even when they could also articulate clear benefits. Obstacles included the need to negotiate among multiple stakeholders, challenges of changing instructional teams, pressures of external entities (e.g., accreditation bodies), fragile relationships with PK-12 schools, and tensions between the time demands of preservice education and the idea that lesson study should be done “correctly” or not at all.

Implications of the study include a need to shift research and faculty development attention to the creation of structures that sustain lesson study. We also argue for shifting focus to the implementation of practices like lesson study as an issue of the teacher education system rather than as pedagogical choices of individual faculty.

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Actor-network-theory, Resources, Teacher education

Lesson Study: challenges with implementation in England

Paper6Sarah Seleznyov, London South Teaching School Alliance, United Kingdom

On Fifth 3Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This case study explores the implementation of lesson study in an English school. Through documentary analysis, observations and interviews, the case study sought to find out which features of Japanese lesson study (Seleznyov, 2018) proved challenging to implement in an English state school and reasons why these features pose potential problems. The study identified several gaps between policy and practice that may pose a threat to the quality of teacher learning in lesson study, which were largely attributable to encouraging teacher choice and to dilution over time. The study throws light on the challenges of translating lesson study into an English school context, in which lesson study practices are neither embedded nor widely understood.

Summary

Given the current surge in popularity of lesson study in England, it is important to begin to explore the ‘translation’ process of Japanese lesson study into English schools. This case study explores the implementation of lesson study in one English secondary school which has been using it as an approach to whole school professional development for five years.

Three guiding questions were developed to shape the research:

Which features of lesson study (Seleznyov, 2018) are simple and difficult to adapt and use in English schools?

Which features of lesson study are included, left out or adapted in English schools, and what is the rationale for these decisions?

What implications might there be for English schools seeking to adopt lesson study as an approach to professional development?

The school's use of lesson study is explored in depth in order to understand the case of lesson study in particular; it also provides insight into the general translation of professional development models from one culture to another. The research adopted a three-pronged case study approach to enable the researcher to explore the degree and specifics of any adaptations to the Japanese model in this school, and to explore stated reasons for these adaptations:

A documentary analysis of the school’s ‘Lesson Study handbook’ which revealed its policy intent in relation to lesson study

Observations of lesson study practices

A series of interviews with participating teachers and the senior leader responsible for the implementation of lesson study in the school

Observations results showed that whilst there was general adherence to the principles of lesson study, there was some deviation from several critical features. Several overarching themes emerge from the interview data, including that desired lesson study practices at the school have become diluted over time, possibly due to the school giving teachers choices with the laudable intention of increasing professional autonomy, but also attributable to a cohort of teachers who were resistant to lesson study. Despite these challenges, all interviewees believed that lesson study was a positive and useful approach to professional development, as a more supportive approach to lesson observation than traditional performance management. However, several felt there was scope to increase the research-focus of the process and that this would improve the school’s lesson study model.

The study concludes that gaps can emerge between the school’s own lesson study policy and practices that may challenge the quality of teachers’ learning in lesson study. The study attributes these gaps partially to either cultural differences between Japan and England, or structural differences in the education systems.

Several implications for English schools seeking to implement lesson study are discussed, including the need to articulate the rationale for the protocols that shape lesson study and to check these principles are adhered to. The study points to the need for further research into the ‘translation’ of lesson study into England and the ‘translation’ of professional development approaches more generally.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Implementation, Schools, Translation

Transition from microteaching to lesson study approach in initial teacher education

Paper292Jimmy Kihwele, Beijing Normal University, Research Center for Teacher Education, China

Paris '69Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Lesson study (LS) approach has been adopted to replace a long rooted traditional practice of microteaching (MT) in initial teacher preparation. The study aims at understanding pre-service student teachers’ perception of LS in instilling and improving their pedagogical skills and influencing innovation in teaching and factors that can affect its implementation. Design intervention was done to compare the same group of students in two different courses, one using microteaching and the other lesson study approaches. The LS was conducted for 16 weeks, involving discussions, reflections and improved planning. Interview was later conducted to understand their perceptions and factors affecting smooth implementation. The LS approach which is relatively new in the Tanzania context has proved to be more beneficial in igniting innovative and improved teaching skills as well as lesson management in their teaching career through the collaboration and team work among teachers.

Summary

The study involved students pursuing Bachelor of Education in Languages and Management at Mzumbe University in their two courses. These are pedagogical courses which give them theoretical and practical orientation in pedagogy and prepare them to become high quality professional teachers. The first course used MT while the other course used the LS approach. The study aimed to understand student teachers’ perceptions and factors affecting LS implementation in making LS a sustainable was of teacher learning.

LS offer a sustainable mechanism of teacher learning throughout their career through collaboration and team work. The approach will ensure teachers are updated through learning from and with each other while focusing on improving their weak points.

The study adopted the sociocultural learning theory by Vygotsky as explained by Shabani (2016). The key assumptions of the theory like ZPD, scaffolding, social artefacts and interaction in learning were potential in implementing LS. Teacher learning process involved these theoretical assumptions through collaboration and team work to achieve learning objectives.

What are participating pre-service teachers’ perceptions of using the LS approach?

What are the factors influencing the implementation of LS?

The empirical work of this study involved several steps. The first step was the implementation of the two approaches, MT and LS. Since LS was a new approach, it started with instructors reading to understand it well, to be aware of the implementation approaches of LS and to contextualize it to local context. The 16 participating student teachers from 16 groups were randomly selected one from each group. They were instructed on what to do and how to get prepared. The LS was implemented for 16 weeks involving the stages as explained by Lewis (2016). Students were grouped and had to explain how they worked in groups to come up with their lesson plan, one presented the lesson while others observed and noted down issues they thought would need clarification or improvement. Later, a discussion to reflect the lesson and shared their observations was conducted. After the 16 weeks, an in-depth interview was conducted and involved 16 participants and each took between 35 to 40 minutes.

The results show that, apart from challenges in implementation, LS had a significant impact on teachers in improving their teaching practices, content knowledge, collaboration and teamwork. The participating teachers showed that they had learned new ways of critiquing their peers and they have developed a mechanism of accepting those critiques in a positive way for improving their skills. They have developed skills of innovating new pedagogical ideas and practices within their working environment and use available resources. The findings resonate with Kelly’s (2006) findings on how teacher collaborates with each other.

The LS acts as sustainable teacher learning method that keep teachers updated through collaborating.

Lesson Study in initial teacher training

Collaboration between university- and mentor teachers to scaffold students learning through LS

Paper323Gro Næsheim-Bjørkvik, Nina Helgevold, University of Stavanger, Norway

Paris '69Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Findings from previous work with LS in PE (2016-2017) show that student teachers point to implementation challenges, related to developing relevant research question and lack of assistance in lesson planning from mentor teachers. This study reports on the effect of introducing Kyozai kenkyu record sheets (Seleznyov 2016) for PE student teachers to scaffold the LS process when reviewing relevant literature before planning the research lesson. Mentor teachers, university teachers and student teachers met once on campus, before the field practice, and everyone was expected to read the relevant literature. Data was collected fall 2018 through written LS reports and through interviews with mentor teachers spring 2019. Analyses of the LS reports, with descriptions and reflections about the Kyozai kenkyu record sheets and the planning sheets, show that this way of working was of great support in student teachers’ planning.

Summary

There is a growing interest in adopting Lesson Study (LS) as a professional development tool for student teachers. Through collaborative planning and reflections, student teachers discuss instructional choices in relation to classroom observations, which support them in questioning their own practices (Sims & Walsh, 2009). This study reports on the effect of introducing Kyozai kenkyu record sheets (Seleznyov 2016) for student teachers, when planning a research lesson in physical education (PE). Findings from previous work with LS in PE (2016-2017) show that student teachers find the LS process as something that add particular value to the program, pointing especially to the planning process and how observation of and interviews with the pupils made them become more aware of the pupils’ learning and experiences during PE-lessons. Findings also point to implementation challenges, related to developing relevant research question and lack of assistance in lesson planning from mentor teachers.

To support student teachers in developing relevant research questions, the Kyozai kenkyu record sheets were introduced to scaffold the LS process when reviewing relevant literature before planning the research lesson. Mentor teachers, university teachers and student teachers met once on campus before the field practice, and everyone was expected to read the relevant literature. Data was collected fall 2018 through written Lesson Study reports and through interviews with mentor teachers spring 2019.

Analyses of 8 Lesson Study reports, with descriptions and reflections about the Kyozai kenkyu record sheets and the planning sheets, show that this way of working was of great support in student teachers’ planning. At the same time student teachers reported that the work with the Kyozai kenkyu record sheets was not a topic during mentoring sessions. Mentor teachers were then interviewed in order to find out in which ways university teacher and mentor teachers can collaborate in supporting student teachers’ professional learning. Based on these findings, better scaffolding of the work with the Kyozai kenkyu record sheets from university teacher and mentor teacher during the planning process, and more focus on individual responsibility and skills in collaborative learning will be highlighted in the presentation.

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Kyozai kenkyu record sheet, Lesson study in initial teacher training, Scaffold PE students professional learning

Using elements of Lesson Study: an experience in secondary school mathematics

Paper206Paula Gomes, João Pedro Da Ponte, Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Educação, Portugal

Rome '96Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

We aim to know the dynamic of a teacher-led professional development activity that includes elements of lesson study and what teachers learn during this process regarding the use of tasks and leading of classroom discourse. This work was carried out in a Portuguese secondary school, with four participant teachers. The methodology is qualitative/interpretative with observations, collection of artifacts and writing a research journal. The results show that the participant teachers were used to share materials and experiences but not to undertake joint detailed planning of lessons. The joint reflections of the lessons led them to realize the need to make significant changes in the tasks to propose to students and in the ways to lead classroom discourse. It is concluded that elements of Lesson Study may be used in a fruitful way based in key elements such as joint detailed planning of lessons and joint reflections based on classroom observations.

Summary

The practice or context from which the work originates. This work was carried out in the school year of 2018/2019 in Portugal, in a secondary school. The participants are four teachers of the school who decided to undertake a professional development activity during the school year, including elements of lesson study: collaborative planning, mutual classroom observations, and joint reflection of observed lessons. The leader of the activity is a teacher from the school that is interested in exploring Lesson Study.

Theoretical framework. This study is based on a conceptualization of teacher knowledge (Shulman, 1986) that underlines the role of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (Ball et al, 2008). Also important is the notion of teacher practice (Ponte, 2012), with special relevance for the notion of task and the way teachers lead classroom discourse (Ponte & Quaresma, 2016). Underlying the professional development process is a perspective of practice-based teacher education (Ball & Cohen, 1999; Smith, 2001).

Research question. Our aim is to know the dynamic of a teacher-led professional development activity that includes elements of lesson study and what teachers learn during this process regarding the use of tasks (selection and enactment) and leading of classroom discourse.

Method(s). This is a qualitative/interpretative research. Data collection was done through participant observation, with audio recording of the Lesson Study sessions, collection of artifacts produced by participants, and writing of a research journal. The classes observed involved grade 10 students and the topic of functions.

Relevance for educational practice. When the situation in which teachers work does not allow to carry out the standard Lesson Study process, elements of this process may still be used in professional development activities. It is important to know, however, what may be the potential benefits of this kind of adaptations and its possible drawbacks.

Results. The teachers in this group were used to share materials and experiences among them but not to carry out a detailed work in preparing lessons as they did in this activity, inspired by Lesson Study. Such work brought to the fore the need to pay great attention to the statement of the tasks, organizing the work of students so that they may write in a clearer way the conclusions that they arrive while solving the tasks. The joint reflections of the lessons observed led the teachers to realize some unforeseen students’ difficulties, especially regarding precision of mathematical language, and suggested further modification in the statement of the tasks to lead the students towards more organized presentation of their work.

Conclusion and discussion. This activity produced significant learning in participant teachers. One reason that may account for this success is the high motivation of the participants regarding the activity, which was designed and carried out by their own initiative. This study shows that elements of Lesson Study may be used in a fruitful way based in key elements such as joint detailed planning of lessons in key topics of the curriculum and joint reflections based on classroom observations.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Mathematics, Secondary school

The team teaching system as Lesson Study for 55 years: from visible to invisible

Paper254Sae Yamamoto, Teikyo Heisei University, Juvenile Education, Japan

Rome '96Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

The purpose of this presentation is to examine the significance of Chikuzan elementary school Team Teaching as Lesson Study. Since 1964, the school has adopted TT system for 55 years, in which teachers have utilized the system in various ways to improve student learning, teacher training, and school management. Although the interpretation of TT has changed with each period, it has always been at the center of Lesson Study. Why has the sustainable development of LS been continued so long? What has made the enabler of such system that teachers who replace yearly have inherited and cherished? It has been suggested that it is important for teachers to consider lessons flexibly and work collaboratively and with autonomy according to the challenges of each periods. TT as LS has encouraged a lot of teachers to learn in depth in order to improve their lessons focusing on how the children are learning.

Summary

The purpose of this presentation is to examine the significance of Chikuzan elementary school Team Teaching (TT) as Lesson Study. Since 1964, Chikuzan elementary school has adopted TT system for 55 years, in which teachers have utilized the system in various ways to improve student learning, teacher training, and school management. Although the interpretation of TT has changed with each period, it has always been at the center of Lesson Study (LS). Why has the sustainable development of LS been continued so long? What has made the enabler of such system that teachers who replace yearly have inherited and cherished?

In this research, we interviewed several teachers who were and now at the core of LS making use of TT. Except for one who is a current research leader within this school, the rest were all experienced principals or administrators. Chikuzan elementary school has accumulated a large numbers of records and published several books in the long history of research. We analyzed those documents regarding TT. In addition to that, we have been continuing classroom observations several times since eight years ago. Most of lessons were implemented by TT, but only the latest lesson in February 2019 was by 1 teacher.

The findings were as follows. There are 4 phases in Chikuzan TT; efficiency of the lesson, flexible improvement, mastery learning, and developmental inheritance. And now, due to the influence of educational policy for the staffing, it is almost impossible for 2 people to conduct TT in 1 classroom (1C2T). However, Chikuzan TT is not necessarily implemented in the form of 1C2T and there are variations like 3 teachers in 2 classrooms (2C3T), 4 teachers in 3 classrooms (3C4T) or 5 teachers in 4 classrooms (4C5T). These examples are all “visible TT”, but the concept of TT internalized through practices is carried out as “invisible TT”, even if there is a shortage of TT staffs. Both TT systems involve collaborative teaching, formative assessment, and creating professional learning community. The teacher who was teaching alone talked, “This lesson was an invisible TT, because the lesson plan before class and the reflection after class were consulted together with another teacher in the same grade.”

In conclusion, it has been suggested that it is important for teachers to consider lessons flexibly and work collaboratively and with autonomy according to the challenges of each periods. TT as LS has encouraged a lot of teachers to learn in depth in order to improve their lessons focusing on how the children are learning.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Developmental inheritance, Invisible TT, Team Teaching as Lesson Study

CANCELLED: Successful implementation of Lesson Study: a human resource development perspective

Paper353Nahid Naserinejad, Taghva School, Iran

Rome '96Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

In this paper presentation, we examined lesson study as a Human Resource Development (HRD) intervention to develop schools’ human capital and provided an organizational lens towards lesson study by identifying the key organizational features that must exist in schools to support sustainable lesson study.

Summary

HRD is a field of research and practice dedicated to develop adults’ work-based learning, knowledge, expertise, productivity, and satisfaction (McLean & McLean, 2001). Lesson study, as one of the most effective methods for the professional development and collegial learning of school teachers has gained a lot of popularity during the past few years. However, its successful implementation remains a challenge for many institutions. One major reason for the inability of many practicing schools to benefit from lesson study is the lack of organizational knowledge necessary to lead change.

HRD has the mission to facilitate change in the workplace by creating learning organizations that 'facilitates the learning of all their members and continuously transforms themselves'; (Pedler, Burgoyne, and Boydell, 1991, p. 9). Learning organizations are characterized by continuous learning and improvements, knowledge generation and sharing, systematic changes in the ways people think, and encouragement of flexibility and experimentation (Kumpikaite, 2008).

We argue that lesson study can be considered as an HRD intervention to develop schools' human capital. Within this framework, the knowledge of the HRD discipline, its strategies, mechanisms and approaches can facilitate the successful implementation of lesson study in schools to create sustainable change. If your school is practicing lesson study without obtaining significant results, you may want to ask yourself questions in the following domains:

Integration with Organizational Missions and Goals.Is lesson study so integrated with your school’s needs that it is seen as necessary for organizational survival? For any HRD intervention to be successful, it has to be integrated with organizational missions and goals. In this context, professional development of teachers should be considered vital for the good of the organization, its productivity and success.

Top Management Support.Does lesson study have the top management support in your school? Top management commitment and support is essential to ensure project continuance and success (Dong, 2001).

Middle Manager’s Commitment and Involvement.Does the principal/lesson director/ superintendent assess, on an ongoing basis, the training and development needs of teachers, facilitate lesson study projects and provide advice, direction and counselling? The competence of a supervisor is critical for implementing an intervention for organizational learning (Day, 2001).

Recognition of Culture.Did you take time to recognize the dominant culture of your school? Does your school have a collaborative learning culture or is it identified as having stiff competitions going on? Culture must be viewed as a central factor in the overall process of lesson study. A learning culture should prevail for the true engagement of teachers in lesson study projects. Proper culture-focused interventions are needed to help creating a learning culture that support lesson study.

Emphasis on Evaluation.After each lesson study project, did you take time to evaluate the process? Did you diagnose the strengths and weaknesses and make plans for improvement? For any HRD intervention to work, including lesson study, the evaluation of activities using proper and relevant measures is a key to success (Zenger & Hurgis, 1982).

and policy aspects of sustainable Lesson Study, Leadership, management
HRD, Human Resource Development, Lesson Study

Re-definition of collegiality in lesson study

Paper280Takashi Nagashima, Masatsugu Murase, Atsushi Tsukui, Azabu Institute of Education, Japan

Straatsburg '88Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Lesson Study is believed to promote 'collegiality', while some studies presented doubts on this view. Considering this argumentation, there are two different ideas for collegiality; one is that collegiality means cooperation to create one shared product, the other is that collegiality means reciprocity, seeking for professionality by each individually. The research question is to find out why these two concepts of collegiality differentiate. We investigated three categories of study; a historical analysis of Japanese Lesson Study, a field research of school reform in Japan, and literature review for Lesson Study and teachers' knowledge. This study has revealed that there are two approaches to teachers' knowledge; one is universal approach oriented toward technical rationality, and the other is personal approach that respects autonomy. These two strongly influence and confuse teacher professional development. The two different ideas of collegiality also derive from the perspectives on teachers' knowledge above.

Summary

Context and research question

This paper theoretically examined how to build a professional learning community where every single teacher inside school can grow through Lesson Study and feel self-efficacy as a learner. 'Collegiality' (Little, 1982) must be the key concept for the issue. In the global attention of Japanese Lesson Study since Stigler and Hilbert’s work (1999) it has been generalized that Lesson Study promotes collegiality. On the other hand, some studies presented doubts on this view (Johnson, 2003; Vangrieken, et al., 2017). Considering this argumentation, there are two different ideas for collegiality in Lesson Study; one is that collegiality means cooperation to create one shared product (Fernandez & Yoshida, 2004; Perry & Lewis, 2008), the other is that collegiality means reciprocity, seeking for professionality by each individually (Sato, 2008; Ose, 2003; Saito, 2012; Nagashima, 2019). Although both ideas commonly challenge the isolation of teachers, they have different notion that what is collegiality in Lesson Study.

The research question of this paper is to find out why these two concepts of collegiality differentiate.

Method

We investigated three categories of study; a historical analysis of Japanese Lesson Study, a field research of school reform in Japan, and literature review for Lesson Study and teachers' knowledge. Japanese Lesson Study in 140 years has, in short, two types of approaches; lesson studies focusing on teacher and teaching method (Inagaki, 1995), and lesson studies focusing on children and their learning (Asai, 2008). Moreover, it has been shown that there are roughly five types of approaches within the latter (Nagashima, 2019). A case study of school reform suggested that among the five approaches there are approaches that are likely to contribute to collegiality while others and the former are not (Nagashima, Tsukui, & Murase, 2018).

Conclusion

This study has revealed that there are two approaches to teachers' knowledge; one is universal approach oriented toward technical rationality, and the other is personal approach (Ryle, 1949; Polanyi 1958) that respects autonomy. These two strongly influence and confuse teachers’ education including Lesson Study. For example, Schön's (1983) 'reflection-in-action' argues against technical rationality in the teaching professions, but it has been incorporated into the Plan-Do-Check-Action cycle for producing universal method contradictorily. Yamazaki (2012) pointed out, from teachers' life-history researches, that all the serious problems in teacher education arise from the assumption of objective knowledge and universal technique, and the alternatives to overcome them accept presumption of personal wisdom and improvisational judgement in lessons.

The two different ideas of collegiality also derive from the perspectives on teachers' knowledge above. While the objective perspective on knowledge supports cooperative creation of common knowledge in Lesson Study, the personalized perspective does the individual pursuit of professionality through reciprocal learning in live-lesson-observation and post-lesson-discussion and in daily chats at teachers’ room. The analysis of five approaches in child-centered Lesson Study (Nagashima, 2019) also unveiled an importance of the latter that can develop every teacher's agency. The concept of collegiality involves simultaneous pursuit of autonomy and collaboration.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Autonomy, Collegiality, Teachers' knowledge

Using Lesson Study to Develop Practices for Teaching High-Achieving Children in Primary Schools

Paper387Anne Jurczok, Nicole Zaruba, Eva Kalinowski, University of Potsdam, Germany

Straatsburg '88Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

To recognize and promote high-achieving and potentially high-achieving students is currently a key research issue in Germany. Especially regular classes in primary schools often lack enough opportunities for gifted and high-achieving students to learn new things and develop their full potential. More time for communication, cooperation, and joint reflection between teachers appear to be central for developing the strategies and practices needed to foster high-achieving students. In Germany, however, teachers rarely co-construct classes or cooperate to develop pedagogical concepts. By introducing Lesson Study as an approach to combine cooperation, concept development and teacher training, we support schools in creating sustainable classroom practices to meet the needs of high-achieving students. As part of a large research alliance, we implement our project on a sub-sample of 20 primary schools. We present a work-in-progress concept for teacher professional development and an accompanying evaluation design.

Summary

To recognize and promote high-achieving and potentially high-achieving students is currently a key research issue in Germany (KMK, 2015). Since 2018, a research alliance called “Leistung macht Schule (Excellence in School Education)” (BMBF & KMK, 2016) has started various research projects in 300 schools to develop concepts to foster (potentially) high-achieving students. Especially regular classes in primary schools often lack enough opportunities for gifted and high-achieving students to learn new things and develop their full potential. Already in the first years of school, underachievement poses a developmental risk with respect to the motivation and performance of students (Gronostaj, Werner, Bochow, & Vock, 2016). In order to meet the needs of these students in class, teachers must draw on various differentiated approaches, design cognitively stimulating tasks and promote a climate that values gifted and high-achieving students in the classroom (Vock & Gronostaj, 2017). Responding adequately to the different learning levels, learning speeds and learning needs of primary school children in regular classes is, however, a major challenge for teachers and cannot be accomplished by one teacher alone. More time for communication, cooperation, and joint reflection between teachers appear to be central for developing the strategies and practices needed to foster high-achieving students. In Germany, however, teachers rarely co-construct classes or cooperate to develop pedagogical concepts (Richter & Pant, 2016).

By introducing Lesson Study as an approach to combine cooperation, concept development and teacher training, we support schools in creating sustainable classroom practices to meet the needs of high-achieving students. As part of the aforementioned research alliance, we implement our project on a sub-sample of 20 primary schools. We present a work-in-progress concept for teacher professional development and an accompanying evaluation design.

Our research draws on two theoretical models. First, the offer-and-use model for research on teachers’ professional development (Lipowsky & Rzejak, 2015). Second, the change mechanism and intermediate outcome model of lesson study by Lewis and Perry (2015). According to these, the Lesson Study cycle is part of a scheme of relating phases of input, practice and reflection in a teacher development program. Teacher training effects can be evaluated on three levels: 1) teachers’ cognitions, 2) teachers’ classroom practices, and 3) student learning. The focus of our research lies on level one and two.

Our professional development concept consists of learning videos with pedagogical content knowledge and on-site training. The schools will perform multiple lesson study cycles during a period of four years. The concept is currently developed and will be tested as well as formatively evaluated. The accompanying formative evaluation includes an iterative mixed-methods design with a pre-post quantitative questionnaire and case studies. The pre-post questionnaire will focus on teaching enthusiasm, attitudes toward gifted- or high-performing students, attitudes toward differentiation, teacher self-efficacy and experience of stress. We would like to present and discuss our concept and mixed-methods design with other Lesson Study practitioners and researchers.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Germany, High-achieving students, Teachers’ professional development

Implementing new mathematics curriculum through Lesson Study in China

Symposium126Rongjin Huang, Middle Tennessee State University, United States of America; Xingfeng Huang, Zikun Gong, Wenjun Zhao, Stéphane Clivaz, United States of America

Tokio '95Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

This symposium presents the state-of-the-art of research on implementing new curriculum through Chinese LS, with a focus on co-learning of teachers and researchers, and the connections between theory and practice. Three papers focus on several aspects of Chinese LS including developing students’ core competency of mathematics, developing a learning trajectory of a specific topic and the interactions between the researchers and participating teachers. Together, this symposium shares the current practice of LS for implementing curriculum in China and explores theoretical issue of the connection of theory and practice during LS.

Summary

Lesson study (LS) has been in place in China for over a century (Chen & Yang, 2013; Li, 2019). Structurally similar to Japanese lesson study, Chinese LS has unique features, such as focusing on developing “exemplary lessons” that demonstrate innovative ideas through iterative cycles of planning-teaching-reflection/revision–re-teaching, with the support from knowledgeable others throughout the process of LS (Huang, Fang, & Chen, 2017). With a support system (Huang, Ye, & Prince, 2016), Chinese LS has been implemented nationwide (Yang, 2009) and has significantly contributed to the transformation toward reform-oriented mathematics teaching (Huang et al., 2019). Although Chinese LS has been effective in implementing curriculum standards (Ministry of Education [MoE], 2011) practically, there is a lack of empirical studies on documenting how mathematics educators and teachers work together to implement innovative ideas to change classroom-teaching practice, and develop their professional knowledge and expertise (Huang, Gong, & Han, 2016).

This symposium aims to share the state-of-the-art of research on implementing new curriculum through LS in China, what teachers and researchers learn from participating in LS, and promote a dialogue about this theme cross-culturally. The first paper focuses on how to develop students’ core competences (such as visualization, computation and reasoning and so on) (MoE, 2011). The other two papers demonstrate how to effectively teach core concepts of mathematics based on learning trajectory (Simon, 1995) and variation pedagogy (Gu, Huang, & Gu, 2017), and documented what teachers and researchers learn from participating in the LS process. The second paper focuses on the interactions between the researcher and participating teachers during developing exemplary lessons of teaching the topic of equivalent fraction and what roles the researcher and the teachers played during the LS process. The last paper examines how to develop a learning trajectory of multiplication with decimals through multiple cycles of LS and explore how research and practice could be informed mutually through the LS.

Each presentation focuses on a different aspect of the effects of Chinese LS within the context of implementing new curriculum. Together, the three papers offer current and rich perspectives and practices of how to use LS as a tool for implementing reform-oriented mathematics teaching and developing participating teachers and researchers.

The symposium adopts the format of presentations, interval Q&A sessions, and final discussion session. The first hour is evenly divided among the three presentations with each presentation taking 15 minutes including clarification questions and answers. The presenters will engage the audience through questions including: (1) what are the strengths and weakness of the practices of Chinese LS? (2) What is the feasibility of adapting Chinese LS in other countries? (3) What are the implications of Chinese LS cross-culturally? The remaining 30 minutes will be split evenly between comments from the discussant and further questions from the audience.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

Developing students’ mathematical core competencies is the main focus of the new mathematics curriculum in China (Shi, Lin, Tao, & Guo, 2017). However, how to implement these ideas in classrooms is challenging for teachers and researchers. This paper examines how the Chinese lesson study approach (Huang, Fang, & Chen, 2017), a core component of the nationwide teaching research system, can be an effective way to promote the implementation of these reform ideas at a district level through a case of an instructional innovation model in Chengdu city, China, called the Dao Jiang Ping (DJP) model (Zhao, Mok, & Cao, 2016). The DJP model has been promoted for 10 years and lesson study is the main way to support teachers to implement innovative ideas in their classrooms. This paper aims to answer two questions: (1) how are lesson study activities facilitated to promote the DJP model? (2) how does the implementation of the DJP model develop students’ core competencies? Based on a 6-year longitudinal study, we collected multiple data sets including classroom videotapes, teacher interviews, student questionnaires and student tests. Mixed methods are employed to analyze the data and results show lesson study activities help teachers change their attitudes and practices, and thus develop students’ mathematical core competencies.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

This study aimed to explore what roles of the researcher and participating teachers played during the multiple cycles of LS. The LS group includes a mathematics education professor from a teacher education university and 12 mathematics teachers from different primary schools in Shanghai, China. The goal of the LS was to develop an exemplary lesson on equivalent fractions based on the notion of Learning Trajectory (LT) (Simon, 1995). Through a typical LS process (Huang & Han, 2015), two of the teachers designed the lesson plans independently, and taught the lessons which were observed and discussed afterwards by other teachers and the researcher. Based on the feedback from the debriefing sessions, both lesson plans were revised and re-taught in other classes. A fine-grained analysis of data set including lesson plans, videotaped lessons and debriefs, and interviews with teachers found that (1) there was a tension between the theoretical ideas about hypothetical LT and participating teachers’ understanding of and implementation of LT-based instruction; (2) the researcher played a key role in promoting the LT-based instruction and modifying the specific LT based on classroom observation and teachers’ feedback. During the process, the theoretical notion informed the practice while the implementation offered insight in refining the theoretical ideas.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

Research has documented the difficulties in understanding of the multiplication with decimals (Van de Walle, Karp, & Bay-Williams, 2016). This study is designed to develop a learning trajectory (LT) (Simon, 1995) of multiplication of a decimal with a whole number through a lesson study approach. The LS group consisted of a mathematics educator from a teacher education university and three mathematics teachers from an elementary school in Hangzhou, China. The researcher identified a learning trajectory of multiplying a decimal with a whole number and shared it with the teachers in the LS group. A teacher designed a LT-based research lesson from his understanding of the learning trajectory and teaching experience, and taught in class A (i.e., LT-A). Based on the feedback of post- lesson debriefs, the teacher revised the lesson plan, specifically refining the LT, and taught the revised lesson in class B (i.e., LT-B). The data collected include lesson plans, videotaped lessons, and pre-, post- student assessments. Based on the classroom performance and post-lesson assessment, students gained more in the LT-B based classroom B. The refined LT include four levels and the associated mathematics tasks. This study demonstrates the power of exploring learning trajectories for a specific topic through lesson study.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Chinese Lesson study

Sustaining Lesson Study: history, good practices and challenges (part I)

Symposium118Hiroyuki Kuno, Nagoya University, Japan

Wenen '95Wed 10:30 - 12:00

Abstract

Lesson Study (LS) has been promoted in many countries all over the world as a collaborative structure to promote teachers’ professional development and support improvement in teaching and learning. Yet, whether and how LS can be sustained in various education contexts is yet to be explored. This symposium aims to provide a panoramic view about the implementation and sustainability of LS in seven counties the Netherlands, Japan, the United States, China, Sweden, Singapore and the United Kingdom. It concludes with implications for further development and advancement of Lesson Study in the world.

Summary

Lesson Study (LS) has been promoted in many countries all over the world as a collaborative structure to promote teachers’ professional development and support improvement in teaching and learning. Yet, whether and how LS can be sustained in various education contexts is yet to be explored. This symposium aims to provide a panoramic view about the implementation and sustainability of LS in seven counties. The symposium consists of two parts and seven presentations. Part I features the experiences of the Netherlands, Japan, the United States and China. Prof Hiroyuki Kuno is the chairperson and Prof Peter Dudley is the discussant. Part II features the experiences of Sweden, Singapore and the United Kingdom. Mr Henrik Hansson is the chairperson and Prof Wouter van Joolingen is the discussant.

The seven presentations help enrich our understanding of the following components of LS development in seven different education contexts, i.e., people, programmes, processes and places. Lesson Study is a collaborative structure for teacher professional learning involving all kinds of stakeholders in education, teachers, students, teacher leaders, pre-service teachers, teacher trainers, scholars and researchers. LS programmes include mainly collaborative endeavors and professional dialogues by various stakeholders of planning, teaching, reviewing and refining lessons LS processes can be organized in different formats, such lesson analysis, collaborative action research, open lessons, or even integrated into teaching routines. These LS activities are enacted in different contexts, ranging from a classroom, a school, a district trusts, networks to an education system, locally and/or internationally. LS can be a pedagogy/ structure of teacher learning (Singapore and the US), a framework to support teachers’ improvement of teaching (The Netherlands), a part of school culture (Japan), a model for a new focus for teacher collaboration (Sweden), a platform to link up local and international teachers’ professional learning communities (the UK).

The rich experiences from seven countries highlight how LS activities are shaped and continuously supported by contextual forces. These critical factors include the availability and quality of LS facilitators or adviser, the use of guiding frameworks or organizational routines enhancing teachers’ analysis of subject matters, theories and students’ learning needs, intrinsic or extrinsic motivation of teachers, integrating LS practices into existing teaching routines and allowing flexibility of developing adapted localized LS practices, leadership, funding, resources and research. The challenges encountered in different countries are also discussed and implications provided for further development and advancement of Lesson Study in the world.

Symposium paper 1 (200 words):

1. Lesson Study Facilitator: What we learned so far

In the Netherlands we use a multi-tiered logic and the inclusion of case pupils as a framework of Lesson Study to support teachers in designing educational interventions for differentiated educational needs in inclusive education settings (Goei & Bosma, 2019). Teacher-teams in the Netherlands have been facilitated in the Lesson Study cycles since the introduction of Lesson Study in the Netherlands. Reasons lay in the educational culture and the difficulty to go from practical lesson designs to in-depth discussions. The critical lens as Fernandez (2002) described, needs to be supported. To grow the scope of Lesson Study in the Netherlands an educational training for facilitators was developed. In this symposium contribution we will describe the content of this training, share the experience of trainers and several trained facilitators. We will discuss the potential of this training for various educational systems and school-cultures.

Symposium paper 2 (200 words):

2. How Japanese professional culture sustaining ‘Lesson Study’: Role and function of “Shido-in”

The aim of this presentation is to provide an investigation on how Japanese school supports teacher professional development systematically in practice.

As Japanese school culture, there are a few Shido-in who are working under the “Shido Shuji” from local board of education for advising school reform and lesson improvement (Chichibu, 2013; Yamamoto et al., 2017). Shido-in contributions his experiences and professional knowledge to young teachers and collegially try to create an alternative mission for improving teaching and learning in practice, mostly through ‘lesson study’ process.

Around 10 hours of such contribution among Shido-in and teachers in school and through lesson study are provided for analysis and providing an effective argument. Especially, data from pre- lesson and post-lesson discussions as well as interviews with both Shido-in and teachers.

From this presentation it can be realized that how Japanese professional culture revises teaching systematically in practice and support teachers to enhance learning through satisfying and continuously lesson study.

Symposium paper 3 (200 words):

3. Sustainability of lesson study: A US case

This case examines a U.S. district where five elementary schools built and sustained school-wide lesson study over 4 years and are currently leading spread of lesson study to other schools. Our original theoretical model for sustainability of lesson study included three major elements:

Lesson study first produces proximal changes in teachers (e.g., knowledge, beliefs, information-seeking) and organizational routines;

To support instructional improvement, school-wide organizational routines must be (a) anchored in instruction, (b) support and maintain interactions among teachers about instruction, (c) make classroom instruction public, and (d) link to the prescribed curriculum or standards (Desimone, 2009; Louis & Kruse, 1995; Resnick & Spillane, 2006; Spillane, et al., 2011).

Supporting teachers’ intrinsic motivation to sustain the hard work of instructional improvement is crucial (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002); sense of agency, belonging, and competence are key contributors to intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

Using video and artifacts from the schools, we examine how each element of the model actually played out, and add three elements that were not originally anticipated: (1) shared subject matter focus (e.g., mathematics) throughout a school; (2) district professional learning structures; (3) outside “knowledgeable others” and (4) large public research lessons.

Symposium paper 4 (200 words):

4. Learning to learn to teach: Theory-oriented lesson study and sustainable development of student teachers

According to Hiebert et al. (2003), initial teacher education is not about providing teachers with a battery of ‘finished product’ skills, but focusing on how to learn to teach. LS can contribute to student teachers’ implementing theoretical knowledge in a social learning context and mastering self-learning strategies in learning to teach. The purpose of this study is to explore key characteristics of theory-oriented LS model and how participation in ToLS enables sustainable learning of student teachers. Unlike the traditional LS, the topic of a ToLS is derived from a pedagogical theory rather than a practical problem. Student teachers should select a theory related to the subject teaching and implement it in a research lesson. Through several “planning- teaching- observing- discussing- reflecting- reconstructing” circles, student teachers can integrate the theory with teaching practice and build their own practical knowledge. Based on multi-sources qualitative data, it is found that student teachers can perceive the complexities of teaching and decontextualization of theory with a more investigate lens. Student teachers also acquire tools they need for sustainable learning to teach, by observing, discussing, and reflecting on the process of practical and situational knowledge of both their classmates and mentors.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Lesson Study, Sustainability, Teacher professional development

13:00 - 13:45 Interactive postersession 1

A study of teaching with multimedia in mathematics classroom by using lesson study and open approach

Poster261Tatiyaporn Khotthanoo, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Corner 1Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

This research aim to study the use of multimedia in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach. The target group was 1st grade students consisted of 8 students in Khon Kaen University Demonstration School International Division and 15 students of Beung Niam Beung Krainoon Thahin School which used Lesson Study and Open Approach. The Lesson Study teams which do Lesson Study daily and weekly cycle. Research conducted under Lesson Study Framework of Inprasitha (2011; 2014; 2017) Data analysis was based on Classroom Protocol, Worksheet and reflection of the Lesson Study team.

The findings found that: The multimedia used for create open-ended problem situations, show animation of problem situations, represent the real world and summarize the concepts. Students could relate with their real world to solve their own problems, connect the real world with semi-concrete aids and go forward to representation of Mathematical World and connect their conceptual.

Summary

Technology is one of the important aspects of mathematics learning in the 21st century. It will be able to make students more accessible to mathematics and supports students to connect mathematical concepts (NCTM, 2011). In the 1st grade classroom, the important thing is students’ real world representation. The real world representation materials is a huge role in posting open-ended problem situations and make it be authentic problem for the students. (Inprasitha,2017) In some classes, there are limitations from using materials. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the use of multimedia in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach.

The target group of this research was 1st grade students consisted of 8 students in Khon Kaen University Demonstration School International Division (KKU DSID) during 2017 academic year and 15 students of Beung Niam Beung Krainoon Thahin School during 2018 academic year which used Lesson Study and Open Approach according to Inprasitha (2011; 2017). The Lesson Study teams which do Lesson Study daily and weekly cycle comprised with the teachers, the experts, graduated students, the researcher, and internship students. Research conducted under Lesson Study Framework of Inprasitha (2011; 2014; 2017) which consists of 3 steps; (1) planning lesson with multimedia (2) The use of multimedia in the classroom by using Open Approach (3) Reflection of the use of multimedia in the classroom. Data analysis was based on Classroom Protocol, Worksheet and reflection of the Lesson Study team.

The findings found that: 1) Posing open-ended problem: The multimedia used for create open-ended problem situations, and students could relate with their real world. 2) Students’ self-learning trough solving problems : The multimedia used for show animation of problem situations, and students could relate their real world to solve their own problems. 3) Whole class discussion and comparison: The multimedia used for represent the real world, and students could connect the real world with semi-concrete aids and go forward to representation of Mathematical World. 4) Summing up by connecting students’ emergent mathematical ideas: the multimedia used for summarize the concepts, and students could connect their conceptual.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Lesson Study, Multimedia, Open Approach

Students' mathematical creative thinking with Lesson Study approach

Poster300Risnanosanti Saleh, Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu, Mathematics Study Program, Indonesia

Corner 1Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

The aims of this research are (1) to give an initial description of students about mathematical creative thinking level in Problem Posing Model with Lesson Study approach, (2) to describe the teaching quality of Problem Posing Model with Lesson Study approach toward students’ mathematical creative thinking, and (3) to find the pattern of students’ mathematical creative thinking in Problem Posing Model with Lesson Study at every creative thinking level. This research used qualitative method. Validation, observation, and test were used to collect the data of teaching quality. The results showed that (1) an initial description of students’ mathematical creative thinking level (CTL) is in the range of CTL 4 to CTL 1, (2) Problem Posing Model with Lesson Study approach has quality to improve creative thinking, and (3) the patterns of students’ mathematical creative thinking at every stage are various according to their own creative thinking level.

Summary

Creative thinking becomes very important to be given to someone since his early age. This can be realized by giving creative learning in the students’ mathematics class. Siswono (2010) viewed mathematical creative thinking as a combination of logical and divergent thinking in intuition but still consciousness. Efforts to improve creative thinking should be accompanied by efforts to improve teaching quality. Improving teaching quality can be done through Lesson Study Approach.

The purposes of this research are 1) to give an initial description of students’ mathematical creative thinking in teaching of Problem Posing Model with Lesson Study Approach, (2) to describe teaching quality of Problem Posing Model with Lesson Study Approach toward students’ mathematical creative thinking, and (3) to find the pattern of mathematical creative of students with Problem Posing Model with Lesson Study Approach at every creative thinking level.

The research method used in this research was qualitative methods. The subject in this research was 32 students of eighth graders in State Junior High School 11 of Bengkulu academic year 2018/2019. The data of mathematical creative processes was taken using observation, interview, and documentation. The data of initial ability of mathematical creative thinking were classified based on creative thinking level Siswono in Khumaidi (2013).

The result of this research were: 1) Results of the data collected showed that 4 students on Creative Thingking Level (CTL) 4, 20 students on CTL 3, 2 students on CTL 2, 6 students on CTL 1, and no students on CTL 0. 2) At evaluation stage, (a) problem posing with lesson study approach achieve classical mastery learning, (b) the average of creative thinking in class which was taught by problem posing with lesson study approach achieve higher score than that of mastery learning criteria. Therefore, it can be concluded that problem posing with lesson study approach setting is effective. 3) The pattern of students’ mathematical creative at (a) preparation stage, all research subjects were able to state the core of problem correctly and select relevant information to solve the problem; (b) incubation stage, different information on each CTL in finding ideas for solving problems, (c) illumination stage, research subjects on CTL 2, CTL 3, and CTL 4 were able to solve flexibility, fluency and novelty problems well while research subjects on CTL 1 solved fluency problems only, and (d) verification stage, there are 3 ways of testing solution done by research subjects, they were checking 2 ways of solving problems whether making the same result, looking back at the core of the problem and comparing it with the solution, and examining whether or not there is an error in every step of problem solving steps.

Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that the level of students' creative thinking can be improved through the problem posing model and lesson study approach. In addition, the combination of problem posing model and lesson study approaches is effective for developing students' creative thinking skills.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
Creative Thinking, Lesson Study

Student Teacher Posed the Problem in Mathematics Classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach

Poster324Panwipa Pornphirunroj, Khon Kaen University, Faculty of Education, Thailand

Corner 1Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to study student teacher posing the problem in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach. The target was a student teacher teaching 4th-grade students and weekly planned lessons with a teacher using Lesson Study and Open Approach. The research conducted by protocol analysis under problem-posing episodes of Olson and Knott (2013) which consisted of 1) the problem setup, 2) the statement of problem and 3) the follow-up questions.

The research revealed that 1) the problem setup: the target prepared a short, clear and easily understood problem and posed the problem in a mysterious way to stimulate students’ interesting. 2) The statement of problem: the target explained rules and problem shortly while the class is voiceless in order to every student can hear. And 3) the follow-up questions: the target asked students their needs while they experienced difficulties and couldn’t answer the problem.

Summary

The mathematical tasks selection and construction were highlighted in the NCTM Professional Standards (1991) as one of the teacher’s most important pedagogical decision (NCTM, 1991 as cited in Crespo, 2003). Furthermore, the ways which problems were used to stimulate learning were critical components of teaching (Olson and Knott, 2013). Mason (2016) provided the important issue in posing problem was that when to introduce exploratory tasks, when to intervene, and in what way. Although there was no theory that explained how a teacher should act, there were various ways for a teacher to prepare for action. Therefore, learning to pose mathematical tasks was a challenge of mathematics teaching. Especially the student teachers who were inexperienced in teaching. Also, the first step of Open Approach was posing open-ended problem (Inprasitha, 2014: page 141-143 and 181). Accordingly, the researcher was interested to study student teacher posing the problem in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach.

The purpose of the research was to study student teacher posing the problem in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach. The target was a student teacher of Khon Kaen University who taught 4th-grade students during the 2017 academic year at Ban Nonghan (Wan Kru 2502) School. The target and a mathematics teacher weekly together planned lessons by using Lesson Study and Open Approach for teaching. The research conducted by classroom protocol analysis under three problem-posing episodes of Olson and Knott (2013) which consisted of 1) the problem setup, 2) the statement of problem and 3) the follow-up questions.

The research revealed that 1) the problem setup: the student teacher prepared a short, clear and easily understood problem and posed the problem in a mysterious way to stimulate students’ interesting. 2) The statement of problem: student teacher explained rules and problem shortly while the class is voiceless in order to every student can hear. And 3) the follow-up questions: the student teacher asked students their needs while they experienced difficulties and couldn’t answer the problem.

Lesson Study in initial teacher training
Lesson Study, Open Approach, Pose the Problem

Transformation of Task to Problem of Students in Classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach

Poster416Chayanon Nampheng, Sampan Thinwiangthong, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Corner 1Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate of transformation from task to problem of the students in classroom using lesson study and open approach. The target group was 38 students in grade 4 at Bankhambong1 School, Mukdahan province in the first semester of academic year 2017. The research instruments were 1) Activity record on the cooperation of creating lesson plan, 2) Eight lesson plans of unit 2 (circle and sphere), 3) Classroom evaluation form focused on problem solving and 4) Learning reflection form. Data were analysed by calculate the average of assessment results from classroom evaluation focused on problem solving (Isoda, 2011) Summary (500 words) Open approach was divided into four steps. The first step is posing open-ended problem, it needs teacher as a facilitator to accommodate student’s learning (Inprasitha, 2014). According to the reason that teacher did not know how to transformation of task to problem of the students, it effecting students unable to solve the problems by themselves. The purpose of this study was to investigate of transformation from task to problem of the students in classroom using lesson study and open approach. The target group was 38 students in grade 4 at Bankhambong1 School, Mukdahan province in the first semester of academic year 2017. The research instruments were 1) Activity record on the cooperation of creating lesson plan, 2) Eight lesson plans of unit 2 (circle and sphere), 3) Classroom evaluation form focused on problem solving and 4) Learning reflection form. Data were analysed by calculate the average of assessment results from classroom evaluation focused on problem solving (Isoda, 2011) The research finding was found that the approach of transformation from task to problem of the students as following: 1) Teachers must be aware of the objectives of each lessons, in order to know what is the important focus. 2) Before creating tasks, teachers have to determine the students’ previous knowledge and understanding. The purpose of the lesson is to require students to apply all their knowledge in problem solving. 3) In posing open-ended problem as a task, teachers must to use questions for checking the comprehension before, during and after the posing open-ended problem. 4) Teachers must encourage students to think and solve problems according to their own comprehension. 5) Teacher can study the students’ ideas from post-teaching notes or related researches. 6) Teacher have to anticipate the students’ ideas, both correct and incorrect ideas. 7) When some students have new ideas, teacher must make all students to understand new ideas.

and learning contexts, Lesson Study in different cultural, subject
PROBLEM

Overviewing the outcomes of workshop-type school training from pe teacher's lesson planning ability

Poster205Aiko Hamamoto, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Education, Japan

Corner 10Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to give an overview of how PE teachers in junior high schools can acquire ‘lesson planning ability’ through participation in Workshop-Type School Training (WTST). We interviewed using the theory of Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick (2016) to teacher A who practiced the lesson and teacher educator (TEor) who managed the WTST. As a result, 1) PE teachers improved in their ‘lesson planning ability’ through preparation of a guidance plan in the WTST and in exchanges with others; and 2) WTST functions as a place to deepen exchanges between teachers, a place to share knowledge, and a place to contribute to the training of teachers’ ‘lesson planning abilities’. However, there were problems in the method of evaluating the WTST. In order to further promoteprofessional development of teachers, teachers and TEors need to work together to sustain LS and evaluation system.

Summary

The purpose of this study is to give an overview of how physical education teachers in junior high schools can acquire ‘lesson planning ability’ through participation in Workshop-Type School Training (WTST).

In Japanese schools, school trainings have been conductedbased on lesson study (LS). However, there are facts that school trainings hasnot proved the effectiveness of LS (Chihibu & Kihara, 2013). The focus of this study is, therefore, on the type of school training wherein teachers can act on their own initiative (Sato, 2011). As one way to eliminate the problem of school training as mannerism, attention has recently been paid to WTST. In particular in Japan, the improvement of teachers’ lesson planning abilities is needed. Therefore, in this research, we focussed on how to improve lesson planning abilities through WTST.

The research method is as follows. First, 31 physical education teachers and the Teacher Educator (TEor), who is a university teacher, participated in this WTST. This training implemented class observations and follow-up meetings with teacher A, as well as lectures by the TEor combined with a workshop to raise their lesson planning abilities. We then interviewed teacher A and the TEor who provided the lecture about the participants’ lesson planning abilities. In order to clearly express the result of the WTST, we created an interview guide following the theory of D. L. Kirkpatrick, involving the training of a 4-step evaluation method. The contents of the interview were analysed using NVivo 11. At this time, in order to raise the internal validity of the analysis result, we conducted a ‘member check’ and ‘verification among fellows’ (Merriam, 1998).

According to this case study, the findings can be summarised with two points: 1) physical education teachers improved in their ‘lesson planning ability’ through preparation of a guidance plan in the WTST and in exchanges with others; and 2) WTST functions as a place to learn theory, a place to produce outputs, a place to deepen exchanges between teachers, a place to share knowledge, and a place to contribute to the training of teachers’ ‘lesson planning abilities’.

In this way, it became clear that WTST is an effective LS style. However, the TEor said in an interview that ‘the problem remains as to how to evaluate (school training)’. In that respect, it is necessary to consider the application of the 4-step evaluation method by Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick (2016), as mentioned in the research method. In the future, when schools, boards of education, and universities collaborate and operate school trainings, we should repeatedly evaluate and improve the training more carefully using the evaluation method by Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick (2016). This will lead to qualitative improvements in school trainings.

In Japan, many LSs are carried out, but the evaluation is ambiguous. In order to further promoteprofessional development of teachers, teachers and TEors need to work together to sustain LS and evaluation system. Thus, what we would like to discuss with you is how to evaluate the outcomes of LS in your country.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Lesson planning ability, PE teacher professional development, Workshop-Type School Training

Effect of teaching and feedback on running motion in long-distance running

Poster275Yudai Matsuda, Student, Japan

Corner 10Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

In this research, we focused on the effects of teaching and giving feedback on the running motion in long-distance running classes. It is said that feedback from teachers to students is important in making students feel excited. Therefore, we consciously gave feedback in the class. Long-distance running classes are disliked in Japan. Moreover, it is believed that not much teaching is possible in terms of the running motion in long-distance running classes. Thus, our focus was on such teaching. The contents of the class included the running movement in the first part of the class; subsequently, a recording measurement of 2,000 m runs was performed. We also used a questionnaire. From these, we examined that it would be possible to improve the record and the exercise was exciting.

Summary

The effect of teaching and feedback on running motion in long-distance running

MatsudaY.,1, Saito K.,2,1: Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University (Japan),2: Hiroshima University (Japan)

Introduction

It is necessary to improve certain physical strength and motor skills so students can experience the fun of exercise in physical education (Nishihara, 2006). Feedback from teacher to students is important for improving the skills of students and ensuring the establishment of classes that instill the fun of exercise (Uezu, 2011). As a matter of fact, continuous feedback based on the student’s trial content is rarely consciously performed (Uezu, 2011). Therefore, classes are conducted using continuous feedback. Long-distance running is one of the most hated classes in Japanese physical education (Takashima, 2017). Therefore, in this research, we thought that it was important to feel the pleasure of long-distance running by teaching and giving feedback on running motion in long-distance running and improving the record to giving a positive experience. The purpose of this research is to clarify the effects of teaching and feedback on running motion in long-distance running classes.

Methods

There were 56 participants in this research from second-grade junior high school students. A questionnaire was developed for this research based on Koiso et al. (2018), conducted as a pre- and post-test. This questionnaire consisted of questions based on a four-step scale and investigated the preference for long-distance running. After each class, I distributed the questionnaire created by the author and examined the effect on the class. Additionally, I also saw a difference in each class for records of long-distance running. We compared the changes in impressions and records for long-distance running and examined the effects of guidance and feedback on running motion.

Result

From the questionnaire conducted before and after the unit, it was shown that there was a statistically significant tendency (p<0.1) between the before and after the unit results on impressions of “good feeling” and “discomfort” for long-distance running. From the questionnaire conducted after the class, there was a substantial difference in the instruction content and the impression on the class, depending on the class. There were no significant differences in changes in the records of long-distance running. Conclusion Teaching and feedback on running motion may have had a positive impact on impressions of “good feelings” and “discomfort.” Also, depending on the teaching content, the student’s impression and ease of running will change. References Koiso T., Nishihara Y., Takashima K., Uezu T.,

Learning Studies

Case study of long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education

Poster86Yusuke Matsumoto, Hiroshima University, Japan

Corner 10Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

This study aimed to analyze the achievements and issues of long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education. By analyzing the results of the questionnaire we examined whether the participants’ attitudes toward long-distance running improved after participating in these classes. Further, we understood the achievements and issues of the classes through a semi-structured interview with the teacher who conducted the classes. The results of the questionnaire survey indicated that there was a statistically significant difference (p <0.001) between the pre- and post-test results for long-distance running classes focusing on competition in physical education due to factors of “engagement,” “achievement,” “favorability,” and “unpleasantness.” Further, the results of the semi-structured interview with the teacher indicated that the achievement of the classes is students’ high motivation toward long-distance running, and that the issue regarding the classes is setting an appropriate exercise intensity according to students’ stamina. Summary

Introduction

In the Japanese course of study for physical education classes, long-distance running is indicated as one of the contents students should engage in. Therefore, in most Japanese physical education classes in schools, students run long distances. However, Japanese students tend not to have a positive attitude toward long-distance running. To address this difficult situation, many studies in Japan have discussed students’ participation in long-distance running classes in school physical education; however, most studies have focused on improving students’ records. In other words, little is known about the effects of long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education (Takashima et al., 2017). This study aimed to analyze the achievements and issues of long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education. We established the following two research questions (RQ). Regarding long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education, do students’ attitudes toward long-distance running improve when they engage in these classes (RQ1)? What does the teacher conducting these classes think about its achievements and issues (RQ2)?

Methods

The study participants were 75 first-year junior high school students, comprising 37 boys and 38 girls. A questionnaire was developed based on Koiso et al. (2018) and administered as pre- and post-tests. This questionnaire included Likert items based on a 4-point scale and open-ended questions. The questionnaire was given to participants at the beginning and end of the learning unit on long-distance running. By analyzing the results of the pre- and post-tests, for RQ1, we examined whether the participants’ attitudes toward long-distance running improved after participating in long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education. As for RQ2, we understood the achievements and issues of long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education through a semi-structured interview with the teacher who conducted the classes.

Results

The results of the questionnaire survey indicated that there was a statistically significant difference (p <0.001) between the pre- and post-test results for long-distance running classes focusing on competition in physical education due to factors of “engagement,” “achievement,” “favorability,” and “unpleasantness.” On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-test for factors of “collaboration.” Further, the results of the semi-structured interview with the teacher indicated that the achievement of long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education is students’ high motivation toward long-distance running, and that the issue regarding the classes is setting an appropriate exercise intensity according to students’ stamina. Conclusion It can be concluded that long-distance running classes focusing on competition in school physical education is effective in helping students develop a positive attitude toward long-distance running.

Learning Studies
Competition, Long-distance Running, School Physical Education Class

The implementation 2013 of curriculum in junior high school in indonesia

Poster227Rusman Rusman, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Curriculum Development, Indonesia

Corner 2Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

The implementation of the curriculum is expected to give a push to an increasing quality of managing and processing educational efforts towards betterments at every unit of learning and education. Backgrounded by application of the curiculum, the present study is geard to reveal problematic aspects dealing with a query of “How do junior high school teachers respond to implementation of 2013 curriculum in Bandung city/regency viewed from the activity of planning, implementing, and evaluating the curriculum?” and “What best practices are applicably implementable in terms of planning, implementing, and evaluating the curriculum done by junior high schoolteachers in Bandung city/regency?” Results of the study indicate that school teachers’ response falls into the category ofpositive. while the activities of planning and evaluating the curriculu, they fall into the category ofpositive. The best practices include activities of “sharing”, “in house training”, "Bimtek, Lesson Plan" and "peer teaching" through their implementation atMGMP orMGMPS.

Summary

The Curriculum Implementation aiming at quality enhancement of education especially through the implementation of the new curriculum of the year 2013 commencing in July 2013 in schools. There are several factors possibly the cause of being successful or the other way around in implementing the curriculum. Viewed from the dimension of curriculum, Hasan (2007:479) explains that curriculum implementation means the dimension of process.

Ornstein & Hunkins (2009:250) elaborate that some schools have failed in implementing curriculum because of negtlecting the factor of people. Instead of focusing on the factor of people, the schools have devoted a lot of their time and budget on merely modifying the programs or on the process. On the other side, focusing on new programs give new ways to people to achieve new programs at schools. The process of organizing remains important for the reason that it motivates people to guide components needed to attain successful implementation.

Results of the research conducted in six Regencies/Cities of West Java Province show that experiences of the teachers as curiculum developers team involved in training or technical assitance in general fall into the category of sufficient with the percentage of 42%, and less than sufficient of 45%. Further explained is that 45% of the teachers as members of the curriculum developers team has never been involved in the training or technical assistance programs as run by the KTSP development, syllabus, and the RPP (Susilana, 2013:156).

Based on the findings and the data analysis, conclusion can be drawn as follows: (1) Junior high school teachers’ response to the 2013 curriculum implementation in Bandung city/regency falls into the category of positive. As of the planning activities, they fall into the category of positive while for the activities of implementation and evaluation of the curriculum, they fall into the category of positive; (2) A number of “best practices” are worth adopting from junior high school teacher in Bandung city in terms of 2013 curriculum implementation in the activities of planning to implement curriculum; (3) Several other “best practices” worth adopting from junior high schoolteachers in Bandung city/regency include the implementation of curriculum. The teachers are successful in optimizing learning sources available around in the process of learning concurrently with electronic learning (4) Other “best practices” are also good to adopt, namely evaluating the curriculum. The teachers have an authentic evaluation using various ways and through different activities like “hearing” with students’ parents in monitoring students’ learning progress.

Suggestions based on the results of the present study are as follows: There are three major activities teachers do in implementing the curriculum, namely planning, implementing, and evaluating. Competencies in doing the three activities are of an obligatory requirement to a teacher. Enhancement of the three major competencies can be done through various ways.

Developing Professional Learning Communities: models and practices
Best Practises, Curriculum, Teacher Professional

Analysis of the social values of “pacu jalur” tradition for social studies learning

Poster235Sapriya Sapriya, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Civic Education, Indonesia

Corner 2Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

This study aims to analyze the social values of the “Pacu Jalur” (Path Runway) tradition found in Teluk Kuantan, Riau Province, Indonesia. Pacu Jalur is one of the traditions of the people of Teluk Kuantan, Riau Province, which has been going on for a long time until now, hereditary, which has become a distinctive characteristic and has become a pride and influence the lives of people. Pacu Jalur is a rowing boat race that is approximately 30-40 meters in size. The study used a qualitative method and data are collected through observation, interviews and analysis of documents about social values. Based on the results, the Pacu Jalur in the Kuantan Bay community has social values [quotrightB?]‹[quotrightB?]‹that are shared by the community as a guide in interacting and behaving so as to form a regular social order. The social value consists of the values [quotrightB?]‹[quotrightB?]‹of cooperation, responsibility, and tolerance

Summary

The Indonesian nation has a diversity of cultures, customs and traditions with a variety of different characteristics, with noble values [quotrightB?]‹[quotrightB?]‹that guide the community where the culture is located. Like the people of Teluk Kuantan in Riau Province, Indonesia who have a tradition of Pacu Jalur. Pathway is an activity that has long existed, has become a tradition and habit from generation to generation, as a distinctive feature and pride and influences the joint life of society (Hamidy, 2004); (Swardi, 1984/1985). Pacu Jalur Tradition is a rowing boat race of about 45 meters long, which is carried out in the river every year in August to celebrate the Independence Day of the Republic of Indonesia.

This type of research is qualitative, by collecting data through observations during the Pacu Jalur event, interviews with community leaders and citizens, and documentation studies. Data analysis is carried out with value criteria as something that is valued, related to affective aspects that have been carried out and adopted by previous individuals, strong emotional commitment, referring to individual relationships with other individuals in a society, which are used as guidelines for acting and behaving (Wicaksono, 2014); (Hakam, 2018). Social value is an abstract standard in society (Kiniker, 1997), has references or indicators as guidelines and benchmarks for behaving (Gordon, 2014; Sapriya, 2017). Based on the results of the study, it was found that the most dominant social values [quotrightB?]‹[quotrightB?]‹contained in the Pacu Line tradition were the values [quotrightB?]‹[quotrightB?]‹of cooperation, responsibility and tolerance. The value of the collaboration in the Path Runway tradition can be seen from the process of making Pathway to the Track Runway race. Costs collected during the construction of the Pathway to the Race Runway race are the result of voluntary contributions by the community according to their respective abilities. The community volunteered to work on making the Path until it was finished and ready to use in the Race Track without being paid together. The value of cooperation is reflected in: being compact in the work team, emphasizing mutual interests, respecting the contributions of others, taking turns in assignments. The value of responsibility in the Pathway tradition can be seen from the participation of the community and race members in the process of making the Pathway to the Runway Race. This community responsibility can be seen from voluntary material and moral contributions in accordance with their respective abilities, willing to sacrifice, participate in all activities. The "runway" responsibilities are seen from working on the tasks that are their responsibility, following the Runway Path in time, prioritizing common interests, and participating in groups. The tolerance value contained in the Pacu Jalur tradition can be seen from the process of making the track until the race. The path making process involves the community without differentiating between one another. Men and women, parents, adults and children participate in accordance with their respective abilities. During the Race Runway, tolerance can be seen from the differences in age and employment of race children involved as members.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Pacu Jalur" Tradition", , Sosial Values

An experience of Italian Lesson Study: insights from the cultural transposition perspectives

Poster378Carola Manolino, Miriana Gagliano, Miguel Ribeiro, Italy

Corner 2Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

In this poster we will present a research project that will be the main subject of the master’s degree thesis work of the first author. The research project has its roots in the framework of the cultural transposition. The purpose of the project, which has already begun, is to assess how Lesson Study can impact on the teacher's awareness of their educational intentionality.

Summary

The Lesson Study (LS) was born in the so-called Confucian heritage culture area and primarily developed in Japan (jugyokenkyu) and in China (guan mo ke), then it gradually spread through the rest of the world. In recent years there have been several discussions on how LS could be implemented in other countries (and different cultures), focussing on how much the "original" LS can be adapted without losing its essential characteristics. In this scenario Author 6, Other, Other & Other (2018) have developed a model of Lesson Study, adaptable to other cultural contexts, renaming it as Hybrid Lesson Study (HLS). Indeed according with the theoretical perspective of Cultural Transposition – CT (Author 3, Other, Other & Other, 2018), education practice coming from a certain cultural context can be experienced in other cultural contexts, without any attempt to translate elements from one culture to another, but rather a careful review of the different educational intentionality embedded in this practice, in order to rethink teaching habits rooted in specific cultural paradigms.

In this framework we have recognized the essential features of a LS cycle as composed by these three phases: i) collective design of a lesson through a fine design grid; ii) conducting the lesson by a teacher while others observe him and take notes; iii) collective reflection and possible redesign and organized the experience as explain in the follow: Each LS cycle is associated with a project group: this group consist of 4 or 5 teachers and sometimes other experts (e.g. researchers in education); in particular, one of the teachers will be the pilot-teacher who is going to held the class in the second phase. We would to study the impact that this experience of participating in LS can have on teachers’ awareness of their educational intentionality, we want to assess how the participation of teachers to the whole LS process can influence their mathematical school practice.

In particular, we would like to stress the fact that in the Italian school system there is shortage of moments to plan the lessons, to discuss with colleague teachers and to keep up to date with the acquisitions of educational research: implementing some HLSs cycles would provide teachers this kind of occasions.

These HLSs cycles (Figure 1) are taking place in Naples, in the same Compulsory school with a group of teachers working the sixth grade, seventh and eight grade. The subject, chosen by the teachers, is proportional reasoning. Experts support the teachers in each phase of the project; the peculiarity of our project is that three of the four teachers who are part of the project group will perform as pilot teacher in the three different cycles (Figure 1).

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Teacher education

Adopting a Dutch program in Japanese moral education through a collaborative Lesson Study

Poster96Namiki Hagino, Hyogo Prefecture Kakogawa City Befu Elementary School, Japan

Corner 2Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

The lesson study has garnered international attention. However, it is difficult to incorporate into the lesson study new ideas that go beyond the existing framework to improve lessons. This research aims to fundamentally improve lessons by adopting a foreign lesson program through a collaborative lesson study between a researcher and a primary school teacher.

The research method comprised the following steps. First, the lack of correspondence between children’s moral education learning in extracurricular activities and their behavior in their daily lives was chosen as the research object. Second, the Dutch program “The Peaceful School” was introduced to overcome the chosen problem. Finally, the Japanese moral education lessons for extracurricular activities were redesigned and implemented according to the program concepts. It was discussed whether the problem had been overcome.

The results indicate that lessons were further improved through three dimensions of the program: intended educational activities, learning environment, and reflection sharing.

Summary

In recent years, the Japanese lesson study has garnered international attention as an effective methodology for the professional development of teachers and for the formation of professional learning communities. However, it is difficult to incorporate into the lesson study new ideas that go beyond the existing framework to improve lessons through lesson study. How do teachers fundamentally improve their lessons? This research aims to fundamentally improve lessons by adopting the concept of the Dutch primary school program “The Peaceful School” through a collaborative lesson study between Dr. Okumura, a researcher at Hyogo University of Teacher Education, and Mrs. Hagino, a teacher at Befu primary school.

The research methods comprised the following steps. First, the lack of correspondence between children’s moral education learning in extracurricular activities and their behavior in their daily lives, which is one of the problems most often pointed out in Japanese education, was chosen as the research object. In Japan, moral education is implemented not only in moral education classes, but also throughout the school education program, including extracurricular activities. Since the moral education content learned in extracurricular activities must be closely related to the concepts of moral worth learned in moral education classes, teachers tend to teach such concepts directly in extracurricular activities. However, children do not always behave morally, even if they learn directly the concepts of moral worth.

Second, the Dutch primary school program “The Peaceful School” was introduced by Dr. Okumura as a strategy to overcome the chosen problem. Intended for primary schools in the Netherlands, the Peaceful School program aims to foster social competencies and democratic citizenship. The Peaceful School program has many points in common with the educational objectives of Japanese moral education in extracurricular activities and offers many suggestions for dealing with the chosen problem as it encourages the connection between children’s learning and their behavior in their daily lives. Finally, Japanese moral education lessons in extracurricular activities were redesigned and implemented according to the program concepts. As for the educational practice, lessons were given to third-grade children with the purpose of making them understand each other and themselves.

The results indicate that lessons were further improved through three dimensions of the Peaceful School program, namely, intended educational activities, learning environment, and reflection sharing. Through such dimensions, children could learn different concepts of moral worth by themselves without direct teaching in moral education lessons in extracurricular activities. In conclusion, the research discusses that the implementation of the program concepts would be more effective if more school teachers designed and practiced the lessons cooperatively.

Creating knowledge in practice: action research and other practice-based research approaches
Collaborative lesson study, The Peaceful School

An Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Argumentation in Lesson Study and Open Approach Classroom

Poster330Thamonwan Kottapan, Khon Kaen University, Faculty of Education, Thailand

Corner 3Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

This research aimed to analysis of students’ mathematical argumentation in lesson study and open approach classroom. The target group was the 5th grade students consisted of four students in Raisresuk school. The lesson study teams were comprised with the in-service teacher, and the internship students. The lesson study teams worked together for creating a lesson plan, then one teacher taught by using open approach as a teaching approach, and the others in the lesson study teams collaborated on observing classroom, and finally collaborated on reflection and discussed about students’ ideas that occurred in the classroom. The analyzed data included protocols between students' problem solving, students’ worksheet, and filed note. Data were analyzed based on Isoda’s framework (2008).

The findings found that students’ mathematical argumentation in lesson study and open approach classroom had three levels; 1) the level of explanation, 2) the level of appreciation, and 3) the level of dialect.

Summary

Mathematical communication was an important aspect in the development of mathematical thinking. In a communication process need mathematical representation and mathematical explanation in the classroom in order to understand the mathematical idea of others. The argument in mathematical communication was found to be the most important features (Isoda, 2008). The development of a new teaching profession to promote mathematics learning required a concept of teaching improvement and development. Lesson study was the model of collaboration between teachers, integrating with the mathematics teaching model that focuses on Open Approach (Loipha & Inprasitha, 2004). According to the above statements, the argument in mathematical communication was important for the development of students' mathematical thinking. Teachers should provide opportunities for students to have a space for discussing related to mathematical ideas. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analysis of students’ mathematical argumentation in lesson study and open approach classroom.

The target group was the 5th grade students consisted of four students in Raisresuk School during 2017 academic year which implemented Lesson Study and Open Approach according to Inprasitha (2004) since 2016. The lesson study teams were comprised with the in-service teacher, and the internship students. The lesson study teams followed 3 steps of Inprasitha (2014); 1) plan: the lesson study teams collaborated on creating a lesson plan, 2) do: one teacher taught by using open approach as a teaching approach, and the others in the lesson study teams collaborated on observing classroom, and 3) see: the lesson study teams collaborated on reflection and discussed about students’ ideas that occurred in the classroom. The analyzed data included: 1) protocols between students' problem solving 2) students’ worksheet, and 3) filed note. Data were analyzed based on Isoda’s framework (2008).

The findings found that students’ mathematical argumentation in lesson study and open approach classroom had three levels; 1) the level of explanation that a concept was accepted by friends in the group, 2) the level of appreciation that a concept was not immediately accepted because the recipient still had questions about the method that the proponent used to proceed in the next step. Therefore, they had to ask and answer to lead a common concept of understanding, 3) the level of dialectic that the ideas had not been accepted immediately because the recipient had objections causing an argument by trying to explain the details of the concepts that need to be clarify by facts or conclusions derived from the previous knowledge that had been learned to demonstrate the suitability of the methods to be used in solving problems.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Lesson Study, Mathematical Argumentation, Open Approach

Improvement of blackboard use in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach

Poster336Natcharida Nararuk, Khon Kaen University, Mathematics Education, Thailand

Corner 3Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

The aim of this qualitative study was to improve teaching by using the analysis of blackboard use in mathematics classroom implementing Lesson Study (LS) and Open Approach (OA). The target group was 2 seventh-grade mathematics preservice teachers and 71 seventh-grade students, Demonstration School of Khon Kaen university, during the second semester of 2018 academic year. Data were collected by document recording of lesson plans and blackboard plans, recording video, vocal and photo, and taking fieldnote of lesson reflection. Data in videotape, voice and photo were transcribed into protocols of lessons. Data were analyzed by the framework of level of sophistication of blackboard use (Yoshida, 2012).

Summary

The result reveals that Initial phase, mathematics preservice teachers’ sophistication of blackboard use at level 2. They began plan the lesson and emphasized planning the use of blackboard. They used blackboard by recording the problem situation, question, student solution, and summary of the lesson, it expressed direction to proceed the activities. For the terminate phase, sophistication of blackboard use was still at level 2, but teachers paid more attention on blackboard use, teaching materials was appropriate for the area of the blackboard, they used many color pens for whiteboard to record and highlight the important points of the lessons, they ask to stimulate the students’ ideas and emphasize the importance ideas by recording on the blackboard and also recording what students have learned as summary of the lesson. Moreover, teachers always practice and plan to use the blackboard for improving the teaching performance.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Blackboard use, Lesson Study, Open Approach

Teacher’s Questioning in Mathematics Classroom Using Lesson Study and Open Approach

Poster339Areeya Chapitak, Khon Kaen University, Faculty of Education, Thailand

Corner 3Wed 13:00 - 13:45

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to study teacher’s questioning in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach. The target was a student teacher teaching 1st -grade of students which used Lesson Study and Open Approach according to Inprasitha (2011).The Lesson Study teams were comprised with the researcher, in-service teachers, and student teacher. The Lesson Study teams followed 3 steps of Inprasitha (2014); plan,do,and see. The researcher analyzed data using qualitative research method that emphasized on analytic description and protocol analysis according to Schoenfeld’s framework.

The results revealed that when teacher’s questions started with “what” students tried to use words to describe their ideas. When teacher’s questions started with “why” students tried to find the ways to explain their ideas. In whole class discussion and comparison, teacher asked questions with in sequence “what”, “why” and “how” that students answered questions faster than started to ask with “why” only.

Summary

Polya (1973) said that a teacher helps students in class was an important class’s management

, which a teacher must try to asked questions that will help students solve problems by themselves. Isoda and Katagiri (2012) said that teacher’s questions were stimulate the thinking of children who can think by themselves. Open Approach is a teaching method which emphasizes on problem solving so that students can think by themselves. There are four steps of Open Approach 1) posing open-ended problem, 2) students ‘self-learning, 3) whole class discussion and comparison, and 4) summarization through connecting students’ mathematical ideas emerged in the classroom (Inprasitha, 2014). Lesson Study is a develop of collaborative skills of teachers and teams to improve and develop Open Approach (Inprasitha, 2014). According to the above statements, teacher’s questions are important part to make students improve and promote learning by themselves. Moreover, Open Approach is a teaching method that allows students to learn by themselves and teachers use Lesson Study to develop Open Approach. Hence, the researcher is interested in teacher’s questioning in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach.

The purpose of the research was to study teacher’s questioning in mathematics classroom using Lesson Study and Open Approach. The target was a student teacher of Khon Kaen University who teaching 1st grade of students during 2017 academic year at Baan Pasangnagoen School which used Lesson Study and Open Approach according to Inprasitha (2011) since 2016. The Lesson Study teams were comprised with the researcher as an observer, two in-service teachers, and a student teacher as a teacher. The Lesson Study teams followed 3 steps of Inprasitha (2014); 1) plan: the Lesson Study teams collaborated on creating a lesson plan, 2) do: the researcher was a teacher who taught by using Open Approach, and the others in the Lesson Study teams collaborated on observing classroom, and 3) see: the Lesson Study teams collaborated reflection on teacher’s questioning found in the classroom. The researcher analyzed data using qualitative research method that emphasized on analytic description and protocol analysis according to Schoenfeld (1987)’s framework which consist of 1) What are you doing, 2) Why are you doing it, and 3) How does it help you.

The results revealed that when teacher’s questions started with “what” (What are you doing), students tried to use words to describe their ideas. When teacher’s questions started with “why” (Why are you doing it), students tried to find the ways to explain their ideas. In whole class discussion and comparison, teacher asked questions with in sequence “what”, “why” and “how” that students answered questions faster than started to ask with “why” only and students could connect concept class’s idea and understand the answers of others more in class.

Lesson Study and teacher professional development
Lesson Study, Open Approach, Teacher’s Questioning

Unpacking science teachers’ technological content knowledge on professional development program

Poster71Liliasari Solaiman, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Science Education, Indonesia